Scientific Journal of Animal Science http://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas <p>The Scientific Journal of Animal Science (SJAS)is an international peer-reviewed journal publishing original scientific papers, reviews and short communications on animal science, animal production and related areas. It includes sections on: animal derived food quality; reproduction and physiology (ruminants and non-ruminants); animal production (management, behaviour, welfare, health); nutrition and feeding (ruminant and non-ruminant); genetics (quantitative and molecular) and breeding; aquaculture.</p> Sjournals en-US Scientific Journal of Animal Science 2322-1704 Parasites diversity of edible African giant snails (Achatina fulica and Archachatina marginata) in the Lekie, Wouri and Santchou localities of Cameroon during the dry season http://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1505 <p>A study was conducted in Cameroon in the dry season to identify the parasites likely to infect edible African giant snails. A total of 120 snails (<em>Achatina fulica</em> and <em>Archachatina marginata</em>) were sampled in the Littoral, Center and West regions of Cameroon. After macroscopic observation of the snails, slime, haemolymph and the internal &nbsp;organs (digestive gland, digestive tract and reproductive system) were isolated and examined using the flotation technique and direct smear (simple and stained). The results revealed that, the most common parasites were cyst of <em>Balantidium coli</em> (42.5%), larva of<em> Enterobius vermicularis </em>(30.8%), cyst of <em>Isospora </em>sp (25.8%), <em>Trichodina achatinae</em> (24.2%), mesocercariae of <em>Alaria </em>sp (21.7%), larva of <em>Angiostrongylus cantonensis</em> (18.3%), cysts of <em>Cryptosporidium </em>sp (15.8%) and <em>Enteromonas </em>sp (10.0%). The least represented were unidentified mite (6.7%), <em>Riccardoella</em> <em>limacum</em> (6.7%), larva of <em>Strongyloides stercoralis</em> (6.7%), eggs of <em>Dicrocoelium dendriticum</em> (3.3%), <em>Fasciola </em>sp eggs (2.5%), <em>Hyostrongylus stercoralis egg</em> (2.5%), larva of <em>Protostrongylus </em>sp (2.5%) and <em>Schistosoma mansoni </em>eggs (0.8%). <em>A. fulica</em> was more infected (80.0%) than <em>A. marginata</em> (70.0%) and snails collected in the Lekie locality were more infected (92.5%) followed by snails from the Wouri locality (82.5%) and finally snails from the Santchou locality (50.0%). Protozoans had the highest infection rate followed by nematodes while the unidentified mite was less prevalent. The host-parasite relationship between the parasites and the snails is multi-factorial because the snail stands either as final, intermediate or paratenic host for the identified parasites. The pathogenic effect of these parasites on snails should be investigated.</p> Prisca C Meffowoet Marc K Kouam Frank M Tchakounte Jean R Kana Copyright (c) 2020 Prisca C Meffowoet, Marc K Kouam, Frank M Tchakounte, Jean R Kana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 9 7 Effect of litter size (birth type) on milk yield and composition in goats and sheep production http://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1511 <p>Litter size is one of the major external (non-genetic) factors which has a multifaceted influence as it regulates both reproduction and production in goats and sheep. Apart from being a principal source of variation on kid/lamb growth performance and survivability, litter size has been implicated in influencing milk yield and composition. However, it is important to note that the influence of litter size on milk constituencies such as protein, fat, lactose, pH, colostrum, etc. has been inconsistent in a number of studies. In absolute terms, milk production is a function of animal genetics and an array of non-genetic factors, and among the latter litter size is ranked highly. There is a tendency of prolificacy promoting high milk production, which implies multiple birth will enhance milk production. The positive relationship between litter size and milk production with regards to multiple bearing dams outperforming single bearing dams is due to prolactin stimulation of the udder which depends on the intensity of the suckling stimulus in response to the number of kids/lambs in a litter. It is more likely that the relationship between milk yield and litter size is for the most part dependent on the extent of prepartum development of the mammary gland where prolactin plays a major role. There is a distinct and strong established physiological link between the number of foetuses in a dam, the resultant placental mass and lactogenic (hormonal) function of plasma to advancement and development of mammary gland in the course of pregnancy and of litter size to milk production. The underlying drivers of milk production are developed in a way specified during fertilization and embryogenesis’s based on the development of placental mass which has a hormonal influence on mammary development in turn milk production. Larger litters promote extensive formation of placental mass as compared with small sized litter. The greater the placental mass as a function of larger litter size the greater the extent of mammary growth hence the greater the dams’ milking capacity. The relationship between litter size and milk composition has been inconclusive as indicated by inconsistency of study results by various authors. The present discussion explores the significance of litter size (birth type) on milk yield and composition in goats and sheep production.</p> Never Assan Copyright (c) 2020 Never Assan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 9 7 635 643