The dynamics of the cost and funding of inclusive education in developing countries


  • Patrick Sibanda Patrick Sibanda* Department of Disability Studies and Special Needs Education, Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Zimbabwe Open University, Zimbabwe


Cost-effectiveness, Cost, Opportunity cost, Funding, Inclusive education, Parallel education system, Developing countries, Principles, Best practices


This paper sought to analyse the dynamics involved in the cost and funding of inclusive education in developing and/or poor countries. The paper explores the cost-effectiveness of inclusive education by analyzing its measurability and sustainability. The literature that was reviewed reveals that the cost of inclusive education is less expensive but more sustainable than that of the traditional system in which general and special education are programmed and financed separately. The paper concludes that while it was difficult to find literature on the measurement of the cost of inclusive education in developing countries, it can be deduced from literature on middle-income and developing countries that inclusive education can cost up to 41% less than that of the traditional parallel system. However, this a can only be achievable if developing and/or poor countries embrace the central principles of inclusion and adopt best practices in these regards. Further research is certainly required on cost-effectiveness of inclusive education and the possibility of coming up with a model for calculating the real opportunity cost of foregoing the traditional more exclusive parallel systems often practiced in developing countries.


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How to Cite

Sibanda, P. . (2018). The dynamics of the cost and funding of inclusive education in developing countries. Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 7(9), 816-822. Retrieved from



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