Experimental investigation of the performance of a ground-source heat pump system for buildings heating and cooling
Keywords:Geothermal heat pumps, Direct expansion, Ground heat exchanger, Heating and cooling
Geothermal heat pumps (GSHPs), or direct expansion (DX) ground source heat pumps, are a highly efficient renewable energy technology, which uses the earth, groundwater or surface water as a heat source when operating in heating mode or as a heat sink when operating in a cooling mode. It is receiving increasing interest because of its potential to reduce primary energy consumption and thus reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). The main concept of this technology is that it utilises the lower temperature of the ground (approximately <32°C), which remains relatively stable throughout the year, to provide space heating, cooling and domestic hot water inside the building area. The main goal of this study is to stimulate the uptake of the GSHPs. Recent attempts to stimulate alternative energy sources for heating and cooling of buildings has emphasised the utilisation of the ambient energy from ground source and other renewable energy sources. The purpose of this study, however, is to examine the means of reduction of energy consumption in buildings, identify GSHPs as an environmental friendly technology able to provide efficient utilisation of energy in the buildings sector, promote using GSHPs applications as an optimum means of heating and cooling, and to present typical applications and recent advances of the DX GSHPs. The study highlighted the potential energy saving that could be achieved through the use of ground energy sources. It also focuses on the optimisation and improvement of the operation conditions of the heat cycle and performance of the DX GSHP. It is concluded that the direct expansion of the GSHP, combined with the ground heat exchanger in foundation piles and the seasonal thermal energy storage from solar thermal collectors, is extendable to more comprehensive applications.
Allan, M.L., Philappacopoulus, A.J., 1999. Ground water protection issues with geothermal heat pumps. Geothermal Resources Council Transactions. 23, 101-105.
Anandarajah, A., 2003. Mechanism controlling permeability changes in clays due to changes in pore fluids. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 129(2), 163-172.
ASHRAE, 1995. Commercial/Institutional Ground Source Heat Pump Engineering Manual. American Society of heating, Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc. Atlanta, GA: USA.
Bejan, A., 2000. Shape and structure, from engineering to nature. Cambridge University Press: London. The many faces of protease-protein inhibitor interaction. EMBO J., 7, 1303-1130.
Bergles, A.E., 1988. Some perspectives on enhanced heat transfer - second generation heat transfer technology. J. Heat. Trans., 110, 1082-1096.
Bowman, W.J., Maynes, D., 2001. A Review of Micro-Heat Exchangers Flow Physics, Fabrication Methods and Application. Proc. ASME IMECE, New York, USA, HTD-24280.
EPRI and NRECA, 1997. Grouting for vertical geothermal heat pump systems: Engineering design and field procedures manual. Electric Power Research Institute TR-109169, Palo Alto, CA, and National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA.
Fahlen, Per., 1997. Cost-effective heat pumps for Nordic countries, and heat pumps in cold climates. The 3rd International Conference, Acadia University, Wolfville, Canada.
Fridleifsson, I.B., 2003. Status of geothermal energy amongst the world’s energy sources. Geothermics., 30, 1-27.
Jo, H.Y., Katsumi, T., Benson, C.H., Edil, T.B., 2001. Hydraulic conductivity and swelling of nonprehydrated GCLs permeated with single-species salt solutions. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 127(7), 557-567.
Kalbus, E., Reinstrof, F., Schirmer, M., 2006. Measuring methods for groundwater surface water interactions: a review. Hydrol. Earth. Syst. Sci., 10, 873-887.
Knoblich, K., Sanner, B., Klugescheid, M., 1993. Ground source heat pumps. Giessener Geologische Schriften, 49, 192, Giessen.
Li, J., Zhang, J., Ge, W., Liu, X., 2004. Multi-scale methodology for complex systems. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1687-1700.
Luo, L., Fan, Y., Tondeur, D., 2007. Heat exchanger: from micro to multi- scale design optimisation, Int. J. Energ. Res., 31, 1266-1274.
Luo, L., Tondeur, D., 2005. Multiscale optimisation of flow distribution by constructal approach. Particuol., 3, 329-336.
Luo, L., Tondeur, D., Le Gall, H., Corbel, S., 2007. Constructal approach and multi- scale components. Appl. Therm. Eng., 27, 1708-1714.
Mandelbrot, B., 1982. The Fractal Geometry of Nature, 2nd Ed., W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, California.
McCray, K.B., 1997. Guidelines for the construction of vertical boreholes for closed loop heat pump systems. Westerville, OH, National Ground Water Association, 43.
Petrov, R.J., Rowe, R.K., Quigley, R.M., 1997. Selected factors influencing GCL hydraulic conductivity. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 123(8), 683-695.
Philappacopoulus, A.J., Berndt, M.L., 2001. Influence of debonding in ground heat exchangers used with geothermal heat pumps. Geotherm., 30(5), 527-545.
Rafferty, K., 2003. Why do we need thermally enhanced fill materials in boreholes? National Ground Water Association.
Ramshaw, C., 1995. Process Intensification in the Chemical Industry, Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd, London.
Rybach, L., Eugster, W.J., 1997. Borehole Heat Exchangers to Tap Shallow Geothermal Resources: The Swiss Success Story. In: S. F. Simmons, O. E.
Rybach, L., Hopkirk, R., 1995. Shallow and deep borehole heat exchangers - achievements and prospects. Pro. World. Geotherm. Congress. 2133-2139.
Shah, R.K., 1991. Compact heat exchanger technology and applications, in heat exchange engineering, Volume 2, Compact heat exchangers: techniques of size reduction, eds. E.A. Foumeny and P.J. Heggs, 1–23, Ellis Horwood Limited, London.
Smith, M.D., Perry R.L., 1999. Borehole grouting: Field studies and therm performance testing. ASHRAE Transactions. 105(1), 451-457.
USEPA, 1997. A short primer and environmental guidance for geothermal heat pumps. U.S.A Environmental Protection Agency EPA. 430-K-97-007, 9.
USGAO, 1994. Geothermal energy: outlook limited for some uses but promising for geothermal heat pumps, U.S. General Accounting Office RECD-94-84.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Abdeen Mustafa Omer
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.