Histidine rich protein 2 performance in determining the prevalence of Malaria among patients presenting with clinical symptoms of Malaria

Authors

  • Chika Okangba Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria
  • Charles J. Elikwu aDepartment of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria. bDepartment of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
  • Emmanuel O. Shobowale aDepartment of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria. bDepartment of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
  • Opeoluwa Shonekan Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria
  • Victor Nwadike Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria
  • Babatunde Tayo Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria
  • Azubuike C. Omeonu Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria
  • Bibitayo Faluyi Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria
  • Chiamaka Meremikwu Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria
  • Oyindamola Falade Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria
  • Demilade Osoba Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria
  • Tolulope Binuyo Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria
  • Akinboboye Olutosin Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Ben Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Nigeria

Keywords:

Malaria, Rapid diagnostic test, Microscopy, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria

Abstract

Malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is an antigen capture assay that enables rapid diagnosis of malaria without the need for electricity or highly skilled technicians. Though potentially useful, its adoption needs to be guided by local test sensitivity. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of a commercially available RDT among 200 febrile patients (aged 2months to 72 years) in Ellison, Ogun State Nigeria. It was a prospective observational study conducted at the Babcock Teaching Hospital (BUTH) between February and June, 2015. Finger prick blood samples were collected from each of the patients (day 0) and immediately tested for P. falciparum malaria by both Giemsa microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT). The prevalence of malaria among the study cohort was 15.0% by microscopy and 17.0% by RDT. The RDT had a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 94.7%; with positive and negative predictive values of 73.5% and 96.9% respectively. The diagnostic performance of the RDT in this study was good. Hence, it is recommended as an alternative method for diagnosis of malaria, especially when microscopy is not feasible.

References

Agomo, P.U., Asianya, V.N., Akindele, S.K., 2003. Investigation of the efficient of two rapid assessment techniques (Optimal 1 and SD BIOline) for the diagnosis of malaria in rural area of Nigeria. Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol., 4, 6-13.

Amazu, L.U., Ebong, O.O., Azikiwe, C.C.A, Unekwe, P.C., Simialayi, M.I., Nwosu, P.J.C., 2009. Effects of methanolic seeds extract of Carica papaya on Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Asian. Pac. J. Trop. Med., 2(3), 1-6.

Ansah, E.K., Narh, B.S., Epokor, M., Akanpigbiam, S., Quartey, A.A., Gyapong, J., Whitty, C.J., 2010. Rapid testing for malaria in settings where microscopy is available and peripheral clinics where only presumptive treatment is available: A randomised controlled trial in Ghana.BMJ; 340, 930.

Ashley, E.A., Touabi, M., Ahrer, M., Hutagalung, R., Htun, K., Luchavez, J., Dureza, C., Proux, S., Leimanis, M., Lwin, M.M., Koscalova, A., Comte, E., Hamade, P., Page, A.L., Nosten, F., Guerin, P.J., 2009. Evaluation of three parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of falciparum and vivax malaria. Malar. J., 8, 241.

Baker, J., Mc Carthy, J., Gatton, M., 2005. Diversity of Plasmodium Falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) and its effect on the performance of PfHRP 2- Based Rapid Diagnostic Tests. J. Infect. Dis., 192, 870-877.

Bates, I., Bekoe, V., Asamoa-Adu, A., 2004. Improving the accuracy of malaria-related laboratory tests in Ghana. Malar. J., 3, 38.

Beadle, C., Long, G.W., Weiss, W.R, Mc ELroy, P.D., Maret, S.M., Oloo, A., Hoffman, S.L., 1994. Diagnosis of Malaria by detection antigen-capture assay. Lancet, 343, 564-568.

Beecham, N.N., Leke, R.F.G., Tietche, F., Taylor, D.W., 1999. Evaluation of a rapid test for histidine rich protein-2 for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Cameroonian children. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 93, 46.

Bell, D., Pelling, R.W., 2006. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests Malaria.Nature Reviews of Microbiology, 4, 534-538.

Bell, D.R., Wilson, D.W., Martin, L.B., 2005. False-positive results of a Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2-detecting malaria rapid diagnostic test due to high sensitivity in a community with fluctuating low parasite density. Am. J. Trop.l Med. Hyg., 73(1), 199-203.

Ben, E.A.E., Lesi, F.E.A., Mafe, A.C., Grange, A.O., 2004. Diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum malaria in children using the immuno chromatographic diagnostic technique. Nig. J. Paediatr. 31(3), 71-78.

Bharti, P.K., Silawat, N., Singh, P.P., 2008. The usefulness of a new rapid diagnostic test, the First Response® MalariaM Combo (pLDH/HRP2) card test, for malaria diagnosis in the forested belt of central India. Malar. J., 7, 126.

Bisoffi, Z., Gobbi, F., Angheben, A., Van den Ende, J., 2009. The role of rapid diagnostic tests in managing malaria. PLos. Med., 1000063.

Bojang, K.A., 1999. The diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Gambian children, by field staff using the rapid, manual, ParaSight-F test. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 93, 685–687.

Brenier-Pinchart, M.P., Pinel, C., Croisonnier, A., Brion, J.P., Faure, O., Ponard, D., 2000. Diagnosis of malaria in non-endemic countries by the ParaSight-F test. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 63, 150-2. (PMID: 11388507).

Buchachart, K., Krudsood, S., Nacher, M., Chindanond, D., Rungmatcha, P., Kano, S., Looareesuwan, S., 2004. Evaluation of the KAT-Quick Malaria Rapid Test for rapid diagnosis of falciparum malaria in Thailand. Southeast Asian. J. Trop. Med. Public. Health., 35, 35–37.

Carley, S., Dosman, S., Jones, S.R., Harrison, M., 2005. Simple nomograms to calculate sample size in diagnostic studies. Emerg. Med. J., 22, 180-181.

Ceesay, S.J., 2008. Changes in malaria indices between 1999 and 2007 in The Gambia: a retrospective analysis. Lancet, 372(9649), 1545-1554.

Chinkhumba, J., Skarbinski, J., Chilima, B., Campbell, C., Ewing, V., 2010. Comparative field performance and adherence to test results of four malaria rapid diagnostic tests among febrile patients more than five years of age in Blantyre, Malawi. Malar. J., 9, 209.

Chiodini, P.P.L., Bowers, K., Jorgensen, P., Barnwell, J.W., Grady, K.K., Luchavez, J., Moody, A.H., Cenizal, A., Bell, D., 2007. The heat stability of Plasmodium Lactate dehydrogenase based and histidine rich protein 2 based Malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Trans.Royal. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 101, 331-337.

Colemman, R.E., Sattabongkot, J., Promstaporm, S., Maneechai, N., Tippayachai, B., Kengluecha, A., Rachapaew, N., Zollner, G., Miller, R.S., Vaughan, J.A., Thimasarn, K., Khuntirat, B., 2006. Comparisom of PCR and Microscopy for the Detection of Assymptomatic Malaria in a Plasmodium falciparum / vivax Endemic Area in Thailand. Malar. J., 5, 121-130.

Craig, M.H., Bredenkamp, B.L., Williams, C.H., Rossouw, E.J., Kelly, V.J., Kleinschmidt, I., Martineau, A., Henry, G.F., 2002. Field and laboratory comparative evaluation of ten rapid malaria diagnostic tests. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 96, 258–265.

Donovana, Oghumu, 2008. Performance of HRP based rapid diagnostic test for Malaria and its variation with age in an area of intense Malaria transmission in Southern Tanzania. Malar. J., 9, 294-305.

Farcas, G.A., Zhong, K.J., Loregrove, F.E., Graham, C.M., Jain, K.C., 2003. Evaluation of the Binax NOW ICT Test versus polymerase chain reaction and microscopy for the detection of malaria in returning travelers. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 69, 598-592.

Fogg, G.L., Guarner, J., Paddock, C.D., Shieh, W.J., Greer, P.W., Barnwell, J.W., 2008. Immunohistochemical assays for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum intissues and implications for pathogenesis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76, 251–259.

Genton, B., Paget, S., Beck, H.P., Gibson, N., Alpers, M.P., Hii, J., 1998. Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum Infection Using Para Sight ®- F Test in Blood and Urine of Papua , New Guinean Children. Southeast. Asian. J. Trop. Med. Public. Health., 29, 35-40.

Gersti, S., Dunkley, S., Mukhtar, A., De, S.M., Baker, S., Maikere, J., 2010. Assessment of two malaria rapid diagnostic test s in children under five years of age, with follow-up of false-positive pLDH test results, in a hyper-endemic falciparum malaria area, Sierra Leone.

Guthmann, J.P., Ruiz, A., Priotto, G., Kiguli, J., Bonte, L., Legros, D., 2002. Validity, reliability and ease of use in the field of five rapid tests for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 96, 254-257.

Hopkins, H., Kambale, W., Kamya, M.R., Staedke, S.G., Dorsey, G., Rosenthal, P.J., 2007. Comparison of HRP2 and PLDH based rapid diagnostic test for Malaria with longitudinal follow up in Kampala Uganda. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76, 1092-1097.

Houze, S., Boly, M.D., Le Bras, J., Deloron, P., Faucher, J.F., 2009. PfHRP and PfLDH antigen detection for monitoring the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Malar. J., 211. Pmid, 19735557.

Humar, A., Oluat, C., Harringtin, M.A., Pillar, D., Kain, K.C., 1997. Parasight F test compared with the polymerase chain reaction and microscopy for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in travellers. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., (56), 44-48.

Huong, N.M., Davis, T.M., Hewitt, S., Huong, N.V., Uyen, T.T., Nhan, D.H., Cong, le D., 2002. Comparison of three antigen detection methods for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of malaria: a field study from southern Vietnam. Trop. Med. Int. Health., 7, 304–308.

Jiang, H., Patel, J.J., Yi, M., Mu, J., Ding, J., 2008. Genome-wide compensatory changes accompany drug- selected mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum crt gene. PLos. One., 3, e2484.

Karema, C., Aregawi, M.W., Rukundo, A., Kabayiza, A., Mulindahabi, M., Fall, I.S., Gausi, K., Williams, R.O., Lynch, M., Cibulskis, R., Fidele, N., Nyemazi, J.P., Ngamije, D., Umulisa, I., Newman, R., Binagwaho, A., 2012. Trends in malaria cases, hospital admissions and deaths following scale-up of anti-malarial interventions, 2000–2010, Rwanda. Malar. J., 11, 236.

Khainar, K., Martin, D., Lau, R., Ralevski, F., Pillai, D.R., 2009. Multiplex real-time quantitative PCR, microscopy and rapid diagnostic immunochromatographic tests for the detection of Plasmodium spp: performance, limit of detection analysis and quality assurance. Malar. J., 8, 284.

Kramer, M.S., Fernstein, A.R., 1991. Measurement of agreement (Kappa Statistics). In: clinical biostatisticsthe biostatistics of concordance. C. V Mosby Company, USA. 29(1), 111-123.

Kumar, D.J., Tibenderana, J.K., Nassali, M., Tumwine, L.K., Riches, C., Montague, M., Counihan, H., Hamade, P., VanGeertruyden, J.P., Meek, S., 2012. Placental Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection: operational accuracy of HRP2 rapid diagnostic tests in a malaria endemic setting. Malar. J., 10, 306.

Kyabayinze, D.J., Tibenderana, J.K., Odong, G.W., Rwakimari, J.B., Counihan, H., 2008. Operational accuracy and comparative persistent antigenicity of HRP2 rapid diagnostic tests for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a hyperendemic region of Uganda. Malar. J., 7, 221.

Laferi, H., Kandel, K., Pichler, H., 1997. False positive dipstick test for malaria. New Eng. J. Med., 337, 1635-1636.

Lee, N., Baker, J., Bell, D., McCarthy, J., Cheng, Q., 2006. Assessing the genetic diversity of the aldolase genes of Plasmodium falciparium and P. vivax and its potential effect on the performance of aldolase-detecting Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). J. Clin. Microbiol., 44, 4547-9.

Lubell, Y., Reyburn, H., Mbakilwa, H., Mwangi, R., Chonya, S., Whitty, C.J., Mills, A., 2008. The impact of response to the results of diagnostic tests for malaria: cost-benefit analysis. BMJ, 336, 202-205. Malar. J., 9, 28.

Markler, M.T., Piper, R.C., Milhous, W.K., 1998. Lactate dehydrogenase and the diagnosis of malaria. Parasitol. Today., 14, 376-377.

Marx, A., Pewsner, D., Egger, M., Nuesch, R., Bucher, H.C., Genton, B., Hatz, C., Juni, P., 2007. Meta-analysis accuracy of rapid tests for malaria in travelers returning from endemic areas. Ann. Int. Med., 142, 836–846.

Mason, D.P., Kawamoto, F., Lin, K., Laoboonchai, A., Wongsrichanalai, C., 2002. A comparison of two rapid field immunochromatographic tests to expert microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria. Acta. Trop., 82, 51–59.

Mayxay, M., Pukrittayakamee, S., Chotivanich, K., Looareesuwan, S., White, N.J., 2001. Persistence of Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2 in successfully treated acute falciparum malaria. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 95, 179–182.

Mharakurwa, S., Simoloka, C., Thuma, P.E., Shiff, C.J., Sullivan, D.J., 2006. PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples. Malar. J., 5, 103.

Miller, R.S., McDaniel, P., Wongsrichanalai, C., 1994. Following the course of malaria treatment by detecting parasite lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. Br. J. Haematol., 113, 558-559.

Moody, A., 2002. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria parasite. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 15, 66-78.

Mueller, I., Betuela, I., Ginny, M., Reeder, J.C., Genton, B., 2007. The sensitivity of the Optimal rapid diagnostic test to the presence of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes compromises its ability to monitor treatment outcomes in an area of Papua New Guinea in which malaria is endemic. J. Clin. Microbiol., 45, 627-630.8.

Murray, C.K., Gasser, J.R.A., Magill, A.J., Miller, R.S., 2008. Update on rapid diagnostic testing for Malaria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 21(1), 97-110.

Mwanziva, C., Shekalaghe, S., Ndaro, A., Mengerink, B., Megiroo, S., Mosha, F., Sauerwein, R., Drakeley, C., Gosling, R., Bousema, T., 2008. Overuse of artemisinin combination therapy in Mto wa Mbu (river of mosquitoes), an area misinterpreted as high endemic for malaria. Malar. J., 7, 232.

Nandwani, S., Mathur, M., Rawat, S., 2005. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction analysis for diagnosis of falciparum malaria in Delhi India. India. J. Med. Microbiol., 23(3), 176-178.

Noedl, H., Wongsrichanalai, C., Miller, R.S., Myint, K.S., Looareesuwan, S., 2002. Plasmodium falciparum: effect of anti-malarial drugs on the production and secretion characteristics of histidine-rich protein II. Exp. Parasitol., 102, 157–163.

Nwakanma, D.C., Gomez-Escobar, N., Waither, M., Crozier, S., Dubovsky, F., Malkin, E., Locke, E., Conway, D.J., 2009. Quantitative detection of Plasmodium DNA in saliva, blood, and urine. J. Infect. Dis., 199, 1567-1574.

Nwuba, R.I., Anumudu, C.I., Omosun, Y.O., Sodeinde, O., Nwagwu, M., 2001. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic card test for Plasmodium falciparum in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr. J. Med. Sci., 30, 123-124.

Ochola, L.B., Vouratsou, P., Smith, T., Mabaso, M.L., Newton, C.R., 2006. The reliability of diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis and management of malaria in the absence of a gold standard. Lanc. Infect. Dis., 5, 582 – 588.

Ohrt, C., Obare, P., Nanakorn, A., Adhiambo, C., Awuondo, K., O'Meara, W.P., Remich, S., Martin, K., Cook, E., Chretien, J.P., Lucas, C., Osoga, J., Mc Evoy, P., Owaga, M.L., Odera, J.S., Ogutu, B., 2007. Establishing a malaria diagnostic center of excellence in Kisumu, Kenya. Malar. J., 6, 79.

Okafor, H.U., Oguonu, T., 2007. Comparison of clinical, microscopic and rapid diagnostic test methods in the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Enugu, Nigeria. Niger. Postgrad. Med. J., 14(4).

Okell, L.C., Ghani, A.C., Lyons, E., Drakeley, C.J., 2009. Submicroscopic infection in Plasmodium falciparum -endemic populations. Sys. Rev. Meta-Analys. J. Infect. Dis., 1509-1517.

Oladosu, O.O., Oyibo, W.A., 2013. Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of malaria in children that presented with fever in Lagos, Nigeria. ISRN. Infect. Dis., 9146875.

O'Meara, W.P., 2008. Effect of a fall in malaria transmission on morbidity and mortality in Kilifi, Kenya. Lancet, 372(9649), 1555-1562.

Palmer, C.J., Lindo, J.F., Klaskala, W.I., 1999. Evaluation of the optimal test for rapid diagnosis of P. vivax and P. falciparum Malar. J., 7, 340.

Perkins, M., 2006. New diagnostic tests for malaria. Afr. Health. (Suppl.) 2001; 23(6), 31.

Prudhomme, O'Meara, W., Barcus, M., Wongsrichanalai, C., Muth, S., Maguire, J.D., Jordan, R.G., Prescott, W.R., McKenzie, F.E., 2006. Reader technique as a source of variability in determining malaria parasite density by microscopy. Malar. J., 5, 118.

Ratsimbasoa, A., Randriamanantena, A., Raherinjafy, R., Rasoarilalao, N., Menard, D., 2008. Which malaria rapid test for Madagascar? Field and laboratory evaluation of three tests and expert microscopy of samples from suspected malaria patients in Madagascar. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76, 481–485.

Rowe, A.K., 2009. The burden of malaria mortality among African children in the year 2000. Int. J. Epidemiol., 35(3), 691-704.

Samane, A.K., Nahid, H.Z., Saaed, S., Khazan, H., Ali, H., Ahmad, R., Hosein, E.G., Alireza, A., 2010. Comparison of microscopy and RDTs techniques for laboratory detection of malaria. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9(10), 1514- 1516. Available at: http://www.academicjournals.org.

Sandrine, H., Mainoumata, D.B., Jayques, L.B., Philippe, D., Jean, F.F., 2009. PfHRP2 and pLDH antigen detection for monitoring the efficacy of artemisinin-bsaed combination therapy (ACT) in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Malari. J., 8, 21.

Sani, U.M., Jiya, N.M., Ahmed, H., 2013. Evaluation of malaria rapid diagnostic test among febrile children in Sokoto, Nigeria. Int. J. Med. Med. Sci., ISSN 2167, 3(5), 434-440.

Singh, B., Kim Sung, L., Matusop, A., Radhakrishnan, A., Shamsul, S.S., Cox-Singh, J., Thomas, A., Conway, D.J., 2005. A large focus of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi infections in human beings. Lancet, 363, 1017-24.

Singh, N., Shukla, M.M., 2002. Field evaluation of post-treatment sensitivity for monitoring parasite clearance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria by use the DetermineTM Malaria Pf test in central India. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 66, 314-316.

Singh, N., Valecha, N., 1997. Field evaluation of the ICT malaria P.f/P.v immunochromatographic test for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infection in forest villages of Chhindwara, central India. Trop. Med. Int. Health. 5, 765–770.

Singh, N., Valechi, N., Sharma, V.P., 1997. Malaria diagnosis by field workers using an immune chromatographic test. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., (91), 396-397.

Stephens, J.K., Phanart, K., Rooney, W., Barnish, G., 1999. A comparison of three malaria diagnostic tests, under field conditions in north-west Thailand. Southeast Asian. J. Trop. Med. Public. Health., 30, 625–630.

Swarthout, T.D., Counihan, H., Senga, R.K., van den Broek, I., 2007. Paracheck-Pf accuracy and recently treated Plasmodium falciparum infections: is there a risk of over-diagnosis? Malar. J., 6, 58.

Talman, A.M., Duval, L., Legrand, E., Hubert, V., Yen, S., Bell, D., Le Bras, J., Ariey, F., Houzé, S., 2007. Evaluation of the intra- and inter-specific genetic variability of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase. Malar. J., 6, 140.

Tjitra, E., Anstey, N.M., Sugiarto, P., Warikar, N., Kenangalem, E., Karyana, M., Lampah, D.A., Price, R.N., 2005. Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium vivax associated with severe and fatal Malaria: A Prospective Study in Papua, Indonesia. PLos. Med., 5.

Tjitra, E., Suprianto, S., Dyer, M., Currie, B.J., Anstey, N.M., 1999. Detection of histidine-rich protein 2 and pan-malarial ICT MALARIA P.v. test antigens after chloroquine treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria does not reliably predict treatment outcome in eastern Indonesia. J. Clin. Microbiol., 37, 2412–2417.

Tjitra, E., Suprianto, S., Dyer, M.E., Currie, B.J., Anstey, N.M., 2001. Detection of histidine-rich protein 2 and panmalarial ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test antigens after chloroquine treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria does not reliably predict treatment outcome in eastern Indonesia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 593–598.

Uzochukwu, B.S.C., Chiegboka, L.O., Enwereuzo, C., Nwosu, U., Okorafor, D., Onwujekwe, O.E., Uguru, N.P., Sibeudu, F.T., Ezeoke, O.P., 2010. Examining appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria: availability and use of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy in public and private health facilities in south east Nigeria. BMC Public Health. (10), 486. Available at: http:// www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/486.

Warhaust, D.C., William, J.E., 1996. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria ACP Broad sheets. J. Clin. Microbiol., 49(148), 533-538.

WHO, 2011. Universal access to malaria diagnostic testing: An operational manual. 1-138. Available at: www.who.int/malaria.

WHO, 2013. World Malaria Report. 1-195. Available at: www.who.int/malaria.

Wilson, N.O., Adjei, A.A., Anderson, W., Baidoo, S., Stiles, J.K., 2008. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Histidine –Rich protein ii in saliva of Malaria patients. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 78, 733-735.

Wongsrichanalai, C., Barcus, M.J., Muth, S., Sutamihardja, A., Wernsdorfer, W.H., 2007. A review of Malaria diagnostic tools: Microscopy and Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 77(6 Supp), 119-127.

World Health Organization, 2008. Rapid Diagnostic Test Instructions and Training. http://Www.Wpro.Who.Int/Sites/Rdt/Using_Rdts/Training/Rdt_Training_falciparum.Htm).

World Health Organization, 2009. Malaria rapid diagnostic test performance. Result of WHO product testing of Malaria RDTs: Round 2 Geneva Switzerland.

World Health Organization, 2010. Information note on the interim selection criteria for procurement of Malaria rapid diagnostic tests, Geneva Switzerland.

World Health Organization, 2010. Malaria case management: Operation manual. Geneva, Switzerland.

World Health Organization, 2010. Malaria diagnosis: WHO guidelines and their implementations. Geneva, Switzerland.

Published

2016-01-19

How to Cite

Okangba, C. ., Elikwu, C. J. ., Shobowale, E. O. ., Shonekan, O., Nwadike, V. ., Tayo, B. ., Omeonu, A. C. ., Faluyi, B. ., Meremikwu, C. ., Falade, O. ., Osoba, D. ., Binuyo, T. ., & Olutosin, A. . (2016). Histidine rich protein 2 performance in determining the prevalence of Malaria among patients presenting with clinical symptoms of Malaria. Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 5(1), 339-350. Retrieved from http://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjpas/article/view/255

Issue

Section

Medicine