Influence of biologically treated wheat straw diet on in vitro rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and digestibility
Keywords:Digestibility, Gas production, Microbial protein synthesis, Methane, Wheat straw
The present study was conducted to assess the nutritive worth of diets comprising of wheat straw (T1 diet) and basidiomycetes white-rot fungal (WRF) isolate RCK-SC treated wheat straw (T2 diet) for in vitro gas production, digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters. Diets (on dry basis) containing 70% straw, 10% berseem green forage, 17% groundnut cake, 2% mineral mixture and 1% salt were formulated. It was observed that in vitro total gas (GV 24 h), true DM and OM digestibility (48 h), in vitro NDF digestibility (48 h), microbial biomass production (MBP) and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were significantly (P<0.05) higher in T2 diet to the extent of 9.71, 17.39, 14.92, 17.45, 6.34, 9.34%, respectively when compared to T1. While, total N and NH3-N in rumen liquor of both the diet remained same. Volatile fatty acids like propionate concentration increased (P<0.05) with a decrease in acetate to propionate ratio (A:P). Methane production expressed as L/kg IVTDMD was significantly (P<0.05) lower (13.86%) in T2 diet. This study demonstrates that fungal treatment of wheat straw using basidiomycetes WRF isolate RCK-SC produces better quality straw and its incorporation benefits rumen fermentation in vitro.
Alexande, G., 1964. Studies on the placenta of sheep (Ovis aries L.). Placental size. J. Reprod. Fert. 7, 289-305.
Akinfemi, A., 2010. Bioconversion of peanut husk with white-rot fungi: Pleurotusos treatusand
Pleurotuspulmonarius. Livest. Res. Rural Develop. 22, 3.
AOAC, 2005. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Arora, D.S., Sharma, R.K., 2009. Enhancement in in vitro digestibility of wheat straw obtained from different
geographical regions during solid state fermentation by white-rot fungi. BioResources 4, 909–920.
Bhatta, R., Baruah, L., Saravanan, M., Suresh, K.P., Sampath, K.T., 2013. Effect of medicinal and aromatic plants on
rumen fermentation, protozoa population and methanogenesis in vitro. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 97, 446–
Blümmel M., Becker, K., 1997. The degradability characteristics of 54 roughages and neutral detergent fibre as
described by gas production and their relation to voluntary feed intake. Br. J. Nutr. 77, 757–768.
Blümmel, M., Ørskov, E.R., 1993. Comparison of gas production and nylon bag degradability of roughages in
predictions feed intake in cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 40, 109.
Blümmel, M., Makkar, H.P.S., Becker, K., 1997. In vitro gas production: a technique revisited. J. Anim. Physiol.
Anim. Nutr. 77:24–34.
Brockman, R.P., 1993. Glucose and short-chain fatty acid metabolism. In: Forbes, J.M., France, J. (Eds.),
Quantitative Aspects of Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism. CABI Publ., Cambridge, MA, USA, 249–265 pp.
Erwin, E.S., Marco, G.J., Emery, E.M., 1961. Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas
chromatography. J. Dairy Sci.44, 1768–1771.
García-Cubero, M.T., Palacín, L.G., González-Benito, G., Bolado, S., Lucas S., Coca, M., 2012. An analysis of lignin
removal in a fixed bed reactor by reaction of cereal straws with ozone. Bioresour. Technol. 107, 229–234.
Getachew, G., Makkar, H.P.S., Becker, K., 2002. Tropical browse: contents of phenolic compounds, in vitro gas
production and stoichiometric relationship between short chain fatty acid and in vitro gas production. J.
Agric. Sci. (Camb) 139, 341.
Hassim H.A., Lourenc, M., Goh Y.M., Baars J.J.P., Fievez, V., 2012. Rumen degradation of oil palm fronds is
improved through pre digestion with white rot fungi but not through supplementation with yeast or
enzymes. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 92, 79–87.
Jalc, D., Zitnan, R., Nerud, F., 1994. Effect of fungus treated straw on ruminal fermentation in vitro. Anim. Feed Sci .
Technol. 46, 131–141.
Karunanandaa, K., Vargaa, G.A., 1996. Colonization of crop residues by white-rot fungi: cell wall monosaccharides,
phenolic acids, ruminal fermentation characteristics and digestibility of cell wall fiber components in vitro.
Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 63, 273–288.
Krishnamoorthy, U., Rymer, C., Robinson, P.H., 2005. The in vitro gas production technique: Limitations and
opportunities. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 123–124, 1–7.
Krishnamoorthy, U., Steingass, H. and Menke, K.H., 1991. Preliminary observation on the relationship between gas
production and microbial protein synthesis in vitro. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 5, 521–526.
Logeswari Monica, C., Tirumurugaan K.G., Vijayarani K., Chandrasekaran C., Kumanan, K., 2013. Bioremediation: An
alternate utility of cloned lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 83, 506–
Mahesh, M.S., Mohini, M., Sawant, S.P., Jha, P., Kundu, S.S., Kuhad, R.C., 2013. Nutritional evaluation of wheat
straw treated with basidiomycetes fungal isolate (RCK-SC) in Sahiwal calves. Livest. Sci. (in press).
Menke, K.H., Steingass, H., 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in
vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev. 28:7–55.
Mohini, M., Singh, G.P., 2001. Methane production on feeding jowar fodder based ration in buffalo calves. Indian J.
Anim. Nutr. 18, 204–209.
Moss, A.R., Givens, D.I., Garnsworthy, P.C., 1994. The effect of alkali treatment of cereal straws on digestibility and
methane production by sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 49, 245–259.
Okano, K., Ohkoshi, N., Nishiyama, A., Usagawa, T. and Kitagawa, M., 2009. Improving the nutritive value of
madake bamboo, Phyllostachysbambusoides, for ruminants by culturing with the white-rot fungus
Ceriporiopsissubvermispora. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 152, 278–285.
Omer, H.A.A., Ali, F.A.F., Gad, S.M., 2012. Replacement of clover hay by biologically treated corn stalks in growing
sheep rations. J. Agri. Sci. 4, 257–268.
Patra, A.K., 2012. Enteric methane mitigation technologies for ruminant livestock: a synthesis of current research
and future directions. Environ. Monit. Assess. 184, 1929–1952.
Patra, A.K., Saxena, J., 2009. The efeect and mode of action of saponins on the microbial populations and
fermentation in the rumen and ruminant production. Nutr. Res. Rev. 22, 204–219.
Patra, A.K., Yu, Z., 2012. Effects of essential oils on methane production and fermentation by, and abundance and
diversity of, rumen microbial populations. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 78, 4271–4280.
Sallam, S.M.A., Nasser, M.E.A., El-Waziry, A.M., Bueno, I.C.S., Abdalla, A.L., 2007. Use of an in vitro ruminant gas
production technique to evaluate some ruminant feedstuffs. J. Appl. Sci. Res. 3, 33–41.
Saritha, M., Arora, A., Lata, 2012. Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic substrates for enhanced delignification
and enzymatic digestibility. Indian J. Microbiol. 52, 122–130.
Satter, L.D., Slyter, L.L., 1974. Effect of ammonia concentration on microbial production in vitro. Br. J. Nutr. 32,
Shrivastava, B., Nandal, P., Sharma, A., Jain, K.K., Khasa, Y.P., Das, T.K., Mani, V., Kewalramni, N.J., Kundu, S.S.,
Kuhad, R.C., 2012. Bioresour. Technol. 107, 347–351.
Shrivastava, B., Thakur, S., Khasa, Y.P., Gupte, A., Puniya, A.K., Kuhad, R.C., 2011. White-rot fungal conversion of
wheat straw to energy rich cattle feed. Biodegradation 22, 823–831.
Snedecor G.W., Cochran, W.G., 1994. Statistical Methods. Oxford and IBH Publications, New Delhi.
Sniffen, C.J., O’ Connor, J.D., Van Soest, P.J., Fox, D.G., Russell, J.B., 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system
for evaluating cattle diets. II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. J. Anim. Sci. 70, 3562–3577.
Tas, B. M., Susenbeth, A., 2007. Urinary purine derivates excretion as an indicator of in vivo microbial N flow in
cattle: A review. Livest. Sci. 111, 181–192.
Tripathi, M.K., Mishra, A.S., Misra, A.K., Vaithiyanathan, S., Prasad, R., Jakhmola, R.C., 2008. Selection of white-rot
basidiomycetes for bioconversion of mustard (Brassica compestris) straw under solid-state fermentation into
energy substrate for rumen micro-organism. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 46, 364–370.
Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B., Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods of dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch
polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci.74, 3583–3597.
Villas-Bôas, S.G., Esposito, E., Mitchell, D.A., 2002. Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic residues for the
production of animal feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 98, 1–12.
Walli, T.K., 2009. Nutritional strategies for ruminant production in tropics: Indian context. In: Pattanaik, A.K.,
Verma, A.K., Kamra, D.N. and Sharma, K. (Eds.). Animal Nutrition: Preparedness to Combat Challenges.
Proceedings of Animal Nutrition Associiation World Conference, February 14–17, 2009, New Delhi, India, 49–
Wanapat, M., Polyorach, S., Boonnop, K., Mapato, C., Cherdthong, A., 2009. Effects of treating rice straw with urea
or urea and calcium hydroxide upon intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and milk yield of dairy cows.
Livest. Sci. 125, 238–243.
Zhu, W.Y., Liu, J.X., Chang, Y.F., Ibal, M.F., Mao, S.Y., 2008. Rumen methanogenesis and nutritional approaches to
the mitigation of ruminant methane Invited paper presented at 13th AAAP, International Symposium, Hanoi,
Vietnam. 33–40 pp.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2013 M. S. Mahesh, Madhu Mohini, Dinesh Kumar, Rakesh Sheel, S. P. Sawant, Pankaj Jha
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.