A survey on osmoregulatory potential of Bream, Abramis brama (Berg, 1949) fry for restocking management programs


  • Reza Asgari Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, 31585-4314 Karaj, Iran
  • Bagher Mojazi Amiri Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, 31585-4314 Karaj, Iran
  • Soheil Eagderi Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, 31585-4314 Karaj, Iran
  • Mohammad Ali Nematollahi Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, 31585-4314 Karaj, Iran


Abramis brama, Osmoregulation, Chloride cell, Hind-gut epithelium, Caspian Sea


Bream (Abramis brama, Berg, 1949; Family: Cyprinidae) is commercially valuable fish in the Caspian Sea fishing industry. Iranian Fisheries Organization annually produces and release up to 19 million Bream fries size for recruiting of this species. Its fries are mostly released into the Anzali wetland with 4 ppt salinity. Meanwhile, they sometimes are released into Sefidrood River (0.5 ppt), Sefidrood River estuary (8 ppt) and directly into the Caspian Sea (12 ppt). To determine whether these alternative locations are suitable for release, sixty fingerling size Bream (0.5±0.13 g b.w.) were exposed to four salinity levels of these locations i.e. 0.5, 4, 8 and 12 ppt, for 120 hrs. The results displayed that accumulated mortality rate was significantly lower in exposed fish to 4 ppt (P<0.05) in compare to others. No differences in size of gill chloride cells were observed among treatments; however, chloride cell number was significantly higher in all treatments except for 4 ppt treatment (P<0.05). Hind-gut epithelium thickness significantly decreased in specimens at 8 and 12 ppt treatments after 120 hrs (P<0.05). The results do not suggest releasing Bream fries directly into the Caspian Sea and also, the Anzali wetland cwas confirmed as the suitable releasing site.


Alderdice, D.F., 1988. Osmotic and ionic regulation in teleost eggs and larvae. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ (eds.) Journal

of Fish Physiology, vol. XI. Academic Press, London, p 163–251.

Altinok, I., Galli, S.M., Chapman, F.A., 1998. Ionic and osmotic capabilities of fingerlings Gulf of Mexico sturgeon,

Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi. Journal of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 20, 609-616.

Ando, M., Nagashima, K., 1996. Intestinal Na+ and Cl- levels control drinking behavior in the seawater-adapted eel,

Anguilla japonica. Journal of Experimental Biology, 199, 711-716.

Arai, E., Shikano, T., Fujio, Y., 1997. Identification and quantification of chloride cells in the gill of guppy, Poecilia

reticulata. Tokohu Journal of Agricultural Research, 47, 77–84.

Brown, J.A, Moore, W.M, Quabius, E.S., 2001. Physiological effects of saline waters on zander. Journal of Fish

Biology, 59, 1544–1555.

Caberoy, N.B., Quinitio, G.F., 2000. Changes in Na+, K+–ATPase activity and gill chloride cell morphology in

grouper, Epinephelus coioides larvae and juveniles in response to salinity and temperature. Journal of Fish

Physiology and Biochemistry, 23, 83–94.

Chervinski, J. 1984. Salinity tolerance of young catfish, Clarias lazera. Fish Biol J 25, 147-149.

Cioni, C., Merich D.D., Cataldi E., Cataudella, S., 1991. Fine structure of chloride cells in freshwater and seawateradapted Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) and Oreochromis ,ossambicus (Peter). Journal of Fish Biology, 39,


Drury, R.A.B., Wallington, E.A., 1980. Carleton's histological technique. Oxford Univ press, Oxford

Evans, D.H., 1993. Osmotic and ionic regulation. In The physiology of fishes. CRC, Boca Raton

Foskett, J.K., Bern, H.A., Machen, T.E., Conner, M., 1983. Chloride cells and the hormonal control of teleost fish

osmoregulation. Journal of Experimental Biology, 106(1), 255-281.

Grady, S.M.O., Wolters, P.J., 1990. Evidence for chloride secretion in the intestine of the winter flounder. Journal of

AJP-Cell Physiology, 258(2), 243-247.

Greco, A.M., Fenwick, J.C., Perry, S.F., 1996. The effects of soft-water acclimation on gill structure in the rainbow

trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research, 285, 75–82.

Greco, A.M., Gilmour, K.M., Fenwick, J.C., Perry, S.F., 1995. The effects of softwater acclimation on respiratory gas

transfer in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Experimental Biology, 198, 2557–2567.

Hewitson, T.D., Darby, I.A., 2010. Histology protochols. Humana Press. p. 229.

Hoar, W.S., 1988. The physiology of smolting salmonids. Journl of Fish Physiology, 7, 275-343

Hwang, P.P., Hirano, R., 985. Effects of environmental salinity on intercellular organization and junctional structure

of chloride cells in early stages of teleost development. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 236, 115–126.

Hwang, P.P., Sun, C.M., Wu, S.M., 1989. Changes of plasma osmolality, chloride concentration and gill NA+, K+-

ATPase activity in tilapia Oreochromis mosambicus during seawater acclimation. Journal of Marin Biology,

, 195-299.

Karnaky, K.J., 1986. Structure and function of the chloride cell of Fundulus heteroclitus and other teleosts. Joyrnal

of American Zoology, 26, 209-224.

Kelly, S.P., Woo, N.Y.S., 1999. The response of sea bream following abrupt hyposmotic exposure. Journal of Fish

Biology, 55, 732–750.

Kelly, S.P., Chow, I.N.K., Woo, N.Y.S., 1999. Alterations in Na+, K+– ATPase activity and gill chloride cell

morphometrics of juvenile black sea bream, Mylio macrocephalus, in response to salinity and ration size.

Journal of Aquaculture, 172, 351–367.

King, A.C., Abel, C., Dibona, R., 1989. Effects of salinity on chloride cells in the euryhaline Cyprinodontid Fish,

Rivulus marmoratus. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research, 257(2), 367-377.

Laiz-Carrio. R., Pesro, N., Guerreiro, M., Fuentes, J., Adelino, V.M., Canario. M., Martin Del Ri´o A.P., Mancera, J.M.,

Branchial Osmoregulatory Response to Salinity in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus auratus. Journal of

Experimental Zoology, 303A, 563–576.

Laurent, P., Hebebi, N., 1989. Gill morphometry and Fish osmoreglation. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 67, 3055-

Martinez-Alvarez, R.M., Sanz, A., Garcia-Gallego, M., Domezain, A., Domezain, J., Carmona, R., del Valle OstosGarrido, M., Morales, A.E., 2005. Adaptive branchial mechanisms in the sturgeon, Acipenser naccarii, during

acclimation to saltwater. Journal of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 141(A), 183–190.

Miyazaki, H., Kaneko, S., Hasegawa, S., Hirano, T., 1998. Developmental changes in drinking rate and ion and water

permeability during early life stages of euryhaline tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, reared in fresh water

and seawater. Journal of Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 18, 277–284.

Perry, S.F., 1998. Relationships between branchial chloride cells and gas transfer in freshwater fish. J Comp

Biochemestry and Physiology, 119(A), 9–16.

Pickering, A.D., Morris, R., 1973. Localization of ion-transport in the intestine of the migrating river lamprey,

Lampetra fluviatilis L. Journal of Experimental Biology, 58, 165-176.

Riede, K., 2004. Global register of migratory species from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt

05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany p 329.

Rombough, P.J., 1999. The gill of fish larvae. Is it primarily a respiratory or an ionoregulatory structure? Journal of

Fish Biology, 55, 186–204.

Sardella, B.A., Matey, M., Cooper, J., Gonzalez, R.J., Brauner, C.J., 2004. Physiological biochemical and

morphological indicators of osmoregulatory stress in “California” Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis

mossambiqus × O. urolepis hornorum) exposed to hyper saline water. Journal of Experimental Biology, 207,


Sasai, S., Kaneko, T., Hasegawa, S., Tsukamoto, K., 1998. Morphometrical alteration in two types of gill chloride

cells in Japanese eels, Anguilla japonica, during catadromous migration. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 76(8),


Sundell, K., Jutfelt, F., Agustsson, T., Olsen, R.E., Sandblom, E., Hansen, T., Björnsson, T.B., 2003. Intestinal

transport mechanisms and plasma cortisol levels during normal and out-of season parr-smolt transformation

of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Journal of Aquaculture, 222, 265-285.

Thomson, A.J., Sargent, J.R., 1977. Changes in the levels of chloride cells and (Na+K+)-dependent ATPase in the gills

of yellow and silver eels adapting to seawater. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 200, 33-40.

Tytler, P., Blaxter, J.H.S., 1988. The effects of external salinity on the drinking rates of the larvae of herring, plaice

and cod. Journal of Experimental Biology, 138, 1–15.

Uchida, K., Kaneko, T., Miyazaki, H., Hasegawa, S., Hirano, T., 2000. Excellent salinity tolerance of Mozambique

tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus): elevated chloride cell activity in the branchial opercular epithelia of the

fish adapted to concentrated seawater. J Zool Sci 17, 149–160.

Ura, K., Soyano, K., Omoto, N., Adachi, S., Yamauchi, K., 1996. Localization of Na+, K+–ATPase in tissues of rabbit and

teleosts using an antiserum directed against a partial sequence of the asubunit. Journal of Zoological Science,

, 219–227.

Vostradovsky, J., 1973. Freshwater fishes. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, London, p 252.

Wilson, R., Gilmour, K., Henry, R., Wood, C., 1996. Intestinal base excretion in the seawater-adapted rainbow trout:

a role in acid-base balance. Journal of Fish Biology 199, 2331-2343.

Yoshikawa, J.S.M., McCormick, S.D., Young, G., Bern, H.A., 1993. Effects of salinity on chloride cells and Na+, K+–

ATPase activity in the teleost, Gillichthys mirabilis. Journal of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology,

(2), 311–317.

Zadunaisky, J.A., 1984. The chloride cell: the active transport of chloride and the paracellular pathways. In: Hoar

WS, Randall DJ (Eds.). Journal of Fish Physiology, vol. XB. Academic Press, New York, p 129–176.



How to Cite

Asgari, R. ., Mojazi Amiri, B. ., Eagderi, S. ., & Ali Nematollahi, M. . (2013). A survey on osmoregulatory potential of Bream, Abramis brama (Berg, 1949) fry for restocking management programs. Scientific Journal of Animal Science, 2(3), 66-73. Retrieved from https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1086



Original Article