Indigenous livestock and poultry rearing for improved resilience and rural household welfare and livelihood outcomes under climate risks in Sub-Saharan Africa
Keywords:Indigenous, Livestock, Poultry, Resilience, Rural Community, Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa is endowed with diverse and locally adapted indigenous livestock and poultry breeds/varieties that have continued to sustain production in rural areas, despite the climate change induced harsh and extreme environment associated with diseases and parasite infections, heat stress and installments of feed and water scarcity. The indigenous livestock and poultry genetic resources are critical to the rural communities’ welfare and livelihoods, food security and nutritional status, and other socio-economic environmental benefits. This scenario is on the background that the larger proportion of the Sub-Saharan Africa population resides in rural areas and are mainly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood, especially the reliant on indigenous livestock and poultry populations. Now, the major challenge is that this subsector is highly vulnerable to climate change that has impinged on their ability to sustain their productivity in rural areas. In this case, rural communities should adopt coping strategies to arrest the vulnerability of animal agriculture to avoid food and nutrition deficit at the household level. Climate change impact on indigenous livestock and poultry rearing among rural resource-poor farmers will take different forms that include unsettled rainfall onset and stoppage (which are each either early or late), poor seasonal distribution of rainfall, and less than normal rainfall. Trends in temperature and rainfall have displayed an increase in average maximum temperatures, at the same time average annual rainfall showed a general decline in most cases, which has impacted negatively on grazing or indigenous livestock and poultry feed resources. Drought is a perennial feature associated with climate change, and increasing indigenous livestock and poultry disease and parasite incidences, dwindling water sources, which result in lack of flourishing grazing and livestock pastures are the major climate-related risks that hurt smallholder indigenous livestock and poultry production. Considering all these interrelated issues, an urgent arise for fostering adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change-related risks as a viable option to enable them to protect their livelihoods and ensuring their food and nutrition security. The resource poor rural dwellers have not been passive observers in combating the effects of climate change as they have adopted several local coping strategies seeking to sustain indigenous livestock and poultry production through building resilience in the indigenous and poultry rearing systems. The adopted different forms of coping strategies include promoting native animal genetic resources, diversification, crop-livestock integration, and micro-livestock farming and fodder conservation technologies. Diversification of indigenous livestock and poultry portfolios is a feasible option in fostering resilience to climate risks and thus improving the well-being outcomes of smallholder animal agriculture. The ability to cope with the impact of climate change depends largely on household’s resilience, or its capacity to absorb the impact of and recover from, climate change shock or risks. Therefore, there is a need to develop resilient indigenous livestock and poultry production systems in smallholder resource-poor rural areas. Developing resilient and diverse breeds, climate-smart livestock and poultry husbandry practices and policy support programs are the potential areas for strengthening resilience livestock and poultry rearing for resource-poor rural farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. With the advent of climate change, there is a concern on how to manage the indigenous livestock and poultry sector's growth, so that their socio-economic and environmental benefits can be attained at a lower environmental cost. This present discussion examines climate change risks and coping strategies at the household level in livestock and poultry rearing among rural resource-poor farmers in Sub Saharan Africa.
Acharya, R.M., Gupta, U.D., Sehgal, J.P., Singh, M., 1995. Coat characteristics of goats in relation to heat tolerance in the hot tropics. Small Rumin. Res., 18, 245-248.
Adedeji, T.A., 2012. Effect of some quantitative traits and non-genetic factors on heat tolerance attributes of extensively reared West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. IJAAAR, 1, 68-81.
Adger, W., 2003. Governing natural resources: institutional adaptation and resilience. In: Berkhout, F., et al. (eds.) Negotiating environmental change: new perspectives from social science. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. 193-208.
Ajayi, O., Place, F., Akinnifesi, F., Sileshi, G.W., 2011. Agricultural success from Africa: the case of fertilizer tree systems in southern Africa (Malawi, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe). Intern. J. Agr. Sustain., 9, 129-136.
Altieri, M.A., 1999. The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agr. Ecosys. Environ., 74(1-3), 19-31.
Aziz, M.A., 2010. Present status of the world goat population and their productivity. Lohmann Informat., 45, 42.
Banerji, R., 1984. Effect of solar radiation on biochemical constituents of blood in goats of different colours. Livest. Adviser., 9, 34-38.
Besbes, B., 2009. Genotype evaluation and breeding of poultry for performance under sub-optimal village condition. World Poult. Sci. J., 65(2), 260-271.
Bett, H.K., Peters, K.J., Bokelmann, W., 2011. Hedonic price analysis to quide in breeding and production of indigenous chicken in Kenya. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 23, 4.
Cain, J.W., Krausman, P., Rosenstock, A., Turner, J., 2005. Literature review and annotated bibliography, water requirements of desert ungulates. S. Biolog. Sci. Cent., 55.
CBS, 2016. National climate change impact survey. National Planning Commission. Singha Durbar, Kathmandu Nepal.
Dessie, T., Dana, N., Ayalew, W., Hanotte, O., 2011. Current state of knowledge on phenotypic characteristics of indigenous chickens in the tropics. World Poult. Sci. J., 67(3), 507-516.
Devendra, C., 1990. Comparative aspects of digestive physiology and nutrition in goats and sheep. Rumin. Nutr. Physiol. Asia., 45-60.
Devendra, C., 1991. Goats, challenges for increased productivity and improved livelihoods. Outlook Agr., 28, 215- 226.
Epstein, H., 1965. Regionalization and stratification in livestock breeding with special reference to Mongolian People’s Republic. Anim. Breed., 33, 169-181.
FAO, 1989. Conservation guide. Arid zone forestry, a guide for field technicians. Food Agr. Organ. Unit. Nat., Rome.
FAO, 2014. Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis Model.
Freier, K., Bruggemann, R., Scheffran, J., Finckh, M., Schneider, U.A., 2012. Assessing the predictability of future livelihood strategies of pastoralists in semi-arid Morocco under climate change. Tech. Forecast. Soc. Change, 79, 371-382.
Frija, A., Afi, M., Dhehibi, B., 2018. Livestock for resilience: Revisiting the role of livestock in the major agricultural production systems of the MENA region. Vancouver, Canada.
Giger-Reverdin, S., Gihad, E.A., 1985. Water metabolism and intake in goats. In, Goat nutrition; EAAP Publication (Italy), no. 46, ed Morand-Fehr, P. / FAO, Rome (Italy). Regional Office for Europe; International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies, Paris (France), (1991), 37-45.
Hales, J.R.S., Brown, G.D., 1974. Net energetic and thermoregulatory efficiency during panting in the sheep. J. Biochem. Physiol., 49, 413-422.
Hetem, R.S., 2010. Adapting to climate change, the effect of desertification on physiological of free living ungulates. PhD Thesis. Wits Univ., SA.
HLPE (High Level Panel of Experts), 2016. Sustainable agricultural development for food security and nutrition: What roles for livestock? A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security. Rome.
Hofmann, R.R., 1989. Evolutionary steps of eco-physiological adaptation and diversification of ruminants, a comparative view of their digestive system. Oecol., 78, 443-457.
Holechek, J.L., 1984. Comparative contribution of grasses, forbs and shrubs to the nutrition of range ungulates. Rangelands, 6, 28.
Horst, P., 1984. Livestock breeding for productive adaptability to unfavorable environments. Paper presented at the 2nd World Congress on Sheep and Beef Cattle Breeding. Republic of South Africa. Pretoria, April 16-19.
Hounghton, J.T., Ding, Y., Griggs, D.J., Noguer, M., Linden, P.J., Dai, X., Maskell, K., Johnson, C.A., 2001. Climate change, the scientific basis. Contribution of working group I to the third assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambr. Univ. Press, New York, USA.
IPCC, 2014. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Jayne, T.S., Yamanob, T., Weber, M.T., Tschirley, D., Benfica, R., Chapoto, A., Zulu, B., 2003. Smallholder income and land distribution in Africa: Implications for poverty reduction strategies. Food Pol., 28(3), 253-275.
Katongole, J.B.D., Sebolai, B., Madimabe, M.J., 1996. Morphological characterization of the Tswana goat. Paper presented at the 3rd Biennial Conference of the African Small Ruminant Research Network, UICC, and Kampala, Uganda. 5-9 December, 1994. 43-46.
Khan, A.G., 2008. Indigenous breeds, crossbreds and synthetic hybrids with modified genetic and economic profiles for rural family and small-scale poultry farming in India, World Poult. Sci. J., 64(3), 405-405.
King, J.M., 1983. Livestock water needs in pastoral Africa in relation to climate and forage. Research Report No. 7. Institute Livestock Center Africa (ILCA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Lawal, R.A., Al-Atiyat, R.M., Aljumaah, R.S., Silva, P., Mwacharo, J.M., Hanotte, O., 2018. Whole-genome resequencing of red jungle fowl and indigenous village chicken reveal new insights on the genome dynamics of the species. Front. Genet., 9, 264.
Lechner-Doll, M., von Engelhardt, W., Abbas, H.M., Mousa, L., Luciano, L., Reale, E., 1995. Particularities in forestomach anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of cameids compared to ruminants. In, Elevage et alimentation du dromadaire-Camel production and nutrition. ed Tisser JL., vol 23 (Paris, Options Mediterraneennes CIHEAM, 1995), 19-32.
LID, 1999. Livestock in poverty focused development. Liv. Dev.
Lobell, D.B., Burke, M.B., Tebaldi, C., Mastrandrea, M.D., Falcon, W.P., Naylor, R.L., 2008. Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030. Sci., 319, 607-610.
Magothe, T.M., Oken, T.O., Muhuyi, W.B., Kahi, A.K., 2012. Indigenous chicken production in Kenya: 1 Current status. World Poult. Sci. J., 68(1), 119-132.
Maina, K.W., Ritho, C.N., Lukuyu, B.A., Rao, E.J.O., 2020. Socio-economic determinants and impact of adopting climate-smart Brachiaria grass among dairy farmers in Eastern and Western regions of Kenya. Heliyon, 6(6).
Mc Gregory, B., 2000. What do goats really what to eat! Goat Specialist. Victor. Inst. Anim. Sci. Agr. Victor., Attwood.
Mtambo, M.M.A., 2000. Improving the health and productivity of the rural chickens in Africa. Report of Phase 1 of an Enreca Sponsored Project, Tech. Rep., 2000.
Mulwa, C.K., Visser, M., 2020. Farm diversification as an adaptation strategy to climatic shocks and implications for food security in northern Namibia. World Dev., 129.
Nardone, A., Ronchi, B., Lacetera, N., Ranieri, M.S., Bernabucci, U., 2010. Effects of climate change on animal production and sustainability of livestock systems. Liv. Sci., 130, 57-69.
Ngigi, M.W., Mueller, U., Birner, R., 2020. Livestock diversification for improved resilience and welfare outcomes under climate risks in Kenya. Eur. J. Dev. Res.
Ngigi, S.N., 2009. Climate change adaptation strategies, water resources management options for smallholder farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. The MDG Centre for East and Southern Africa. Earth Inst. Columb. Univ., New York.
Otte, J., Costales, A., Upton, M., 2005. Smallholder livestock keepers in the era of globalization. Pro-poor livestock policy initiative. A living from livestock. Research report. University of Reading, June, 2005.
Padhi, M.K., 2016. Importance of indigenous breeds of chicken for rural economy and their improvements for higher production performance. Scientifica, 1-9.
Peacock, C., 2005. Goats: A pathway out of poverty. Small Rumin. Res., 60(1-2), 179-186.
Provenza, F.D., 1997. Feeding behavior of herbivores in response to plant toxicants. Handbook of plant and fungal toxicants. 16, 231-242.
Provenza, F.D., Phister, J.A., Cheney, C.D., 1992. Mechanisms of learning in diet selection with reference to phytotoxicosis in herbivores. J. Range Manag., 45, 36-45.
Rotter, R., Geijn, S.C., 1999. Climate change effects on plant growth, crop yield and livestock. Climat. Change J. Vet. Adv., 2, 407-412.
Rust, J., Rust, T., 2013. Climate change and livestock production: A review with emphasis on Africa. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 43, 255-267.
Schilling, J., Opiyo, F., Scheffran, J., 2012. Raiding pastoral livelihoods: motives and effects of violent conflict in north-western Kenya. Pastoralism, 2, 1-16.
Shkolnik, A., Silanikove, N., 1981. Water economy, energy metabolism and productivity in desert ruminants. In: Morand-Fehr, P., Borbouse, A., De Simiane, M. (eds.) Nutrition System. Goat Feed. ITOVIC-INRA, Tours, France, 1, 236-246.
Silanikove, N., 1992. Effects of water scarcity and hot environment on appetite and digestion in ruminants. A review. Livest. Prod. Sci., 30, 175-194.
Tadelle, D.S., 2003. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of local chicken ecotypes in Ethiopia. PhD Thesis, Humboldt University, Berlin, German.
Thornton, P.K., Herrero, M., 2014. Climate change adaptation in mixed crop-livestock systems in developing countries. Global Food Security, 3(2), 99-107.
Tilman, D., Cassman, K.G., Matson, P.A., Naylor, R., Polasky, S., 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nat., 418, 671-677.
Vali, N., 2008. Indigenous chicken production in Iran: A review. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci., 11(22), 2525-2531.
Van Thanh, D.T., 2006. Some animals and feed factors affecting feed intake, behavior and performance of small ruminants. PhD Thesis, Swedish Univ. Agr. Sci., Sweden.
Wang, M.S., Zhang, R.W., Su, L.Y., Li, Y., Peng, M.S., Liu, H.Q., Zeng, L., Irwin, D.M., Du, J.L., Yao, Y.G., 2016. Positive selection rather than relaxation of functional constraint drives the evolution of vision during chicken domestication. Cell Res., 26, 556-573.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Never Assan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.