Opportunities and needs in development of smallholder goat production systems in Africa

Authors

  • Never Assan Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Agriculture Management, Bulawayo Region, Box 3550, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

Keywords:

Goat Production, Opportunities, Needs, Smallholder, Africa

Abstract

A detailed diagnosis of the dynamics of smallholder goat farming systems will guide in any of livelihood intervention programs which takes into account the important socioeconomic issues towards improving the standard of living of the rural poor in Africa.  Goats  provide smallholder resource poor farmers with a vast range of products and services such as immediate cash income, meat, milk, skin, manure, risk spreading/ management and social functions.  This is on the background that goats require smaller investments, have shorter production cycles and greater environmental adaptability, and hence have a unique niche in smallholder agriculture which make them a sustainable enterprise in the context of climate change and variability. This is a review paper that explores the feasibility of goat production  as an viable option to improve the quality of life of rural populations in Africa. The discussion highlights the opportunities and challenges in maximizing goat production on the continent focusing on the reducing the current animal product  demand supply gap in rural areas. Empirical evidence show that goat population do play a greater role  in smallholder farming sector and the species is increasing in numbers than othe livestock. The major concern for using goats  is their ecological and physiological  adaptive traits which will be more important in the context of climate change variability and other common environmental shocks. The factors which contribute to efficiency in goat production as influenced by water stress, feed inadequacy and disease resistance should be studied further inorder for goats to continualy survive the extremities of climate change. Study conclude that goats constitute an important reservoir of genetic material and sustainable form of animal production that has significant potential for alleviating malnutrition and food insecurity in  Africa.

References

Aduku, A.O., Aganga, A.A., Okoh, A.N., Ingawa, S.A., Phillip, D.O.A., 1999. Contribution of offals to the gross value

of goat carcasses in Nigeria. Small Rum. Res., (1-2), 179-184.

Assan, N., 2011. Prospects for Goat Genetic Improvement in Support of the Proposed Small Holder Goat Market

Development Initiative in the Western Semi-Arid areas of Zimbabwe: Goat Open Nucleus Breeding Scheme

(GONBS). A Rev. J. Anim. Sci. Adv., 1(1), 1- 8.

Assan, N., 2013. Crossbreeding as a Strategy to Enhance Income and Livelihood in Poverty Alleviation in Resource

Poor Goat Keepers. Int. J. Sci. Knowl., Volume 2, Issue 1, pages 52-56.

Assan, N., 2013. Future Priorities on Improved Livestock Production in Zimbabwe. Int. J. Env. Sci., Volume 2, Issue

, pages 77-81.

Assan, N., Mabuku, O., Musasira, M., 2011. Estimation of covariance components and genetic parameters for

weaning weight in Matebele goat, Sabi, Dorper and Mutton Merino sheep. J. Anim. Sci. Adv., Volume 1, Issue

, pages 38- 46.

Assan, N., 2011. Prospects for Goat Genetic Improvement in Support of the Proposed Small Holder Goat Market

Development Initiative in the Western Semi-Arid areas of Zimbabwe: Goat Open Nucleus Breeding Scheme

(GONBS). A Rev. J. Anim. Sci. Adv., 1(1), 1- 8.

Aziz, M.A., 2010. Present status of the world goat populations and their productivity. Lohmann Inform., 45(2), 42.

Bartholomew, P.W., Ly, R., Doumbia, M., Khibe, T., Kone, N’g., Traore, B., Ba, S., 2003. Agro-industrial byproducts cowpea residues and urea treatment of hay for supplementary dry season feeding of mature Zebu

oxen in Mali. Liv. Res. Rur. Dev., 15(2), 1-2.

Biswas, J.C., Koul, G.L., 1989. Age difference of certain carcass traits and carcass composition in male Cheghu

goats. Ind. J. Anim. Sci., 59 (6), 754 -756.

Bosman, H.G., Moll, H.A.J., Udo, H.M.J., 1997. Measuring and interpreting the benefits of goat keeping in tropical

farm systems. Agr. System., 53, 349-372.

Bosso, N.A., 2006. Genetic improvement of livestock in tsetse infested areas in West Africa. PhD Thesis, Animal

Breeding and Genetics Group. Dep. Anim. Sci., Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen,

The Netherlands.

Devendra, C., 1999. Goats: Challenges for increased productivity and improved livelihoods. Outl. Agr., Vol. 28, No.

, 215–226.

Devendra, C., 2001. Small ruminants: Imperatives for productivity enhancement, improved livelihoods and rural

growth- a review. Asian-Austral. J. Anim. Sci., 14, 10, 1483-1496.

Dubeuf, J.P., Boyazoglu, J. 2009. An international panorama of goat selection and breeds. Livest. Sci., 120, 225–

El-Hag, M.G., El-Shargi, K.M., 1996. Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of local (Dhofari) and exotic

(Cashmere) goat fed on a high fiber by products diet supplemented with Sardine fish., AJAS 9(4), 389- 396.

F.A.O., 2005. Agricultural Outlook: 2005- 2014 Highlights. Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the

United Nations (FAO) and Organizat. Econom. Co-operat. Dev. (OECD).

F.A.O., 2001. Food and Agriculture Organization. Statistical Database. Food and Agriculture Organization of United

Nation.

F.A.O., 1996. Production Yearbook, Vol 50. Food Agr. Organizat., Rome, 1996.

Ghosh, P., Mookherjee, D., Ray, D., 2000. Credit Rationing in Developing Countries. An Overview of the Theory. In:

D. Mookherjee and D. Ray. (Eds.). A Reader Dev. Econom., pp. 1-23. London: Blackwell.

Goetz, A.M., Gupta, R.S., 1996. Who Takes the Credit? Gender, Power, and Control Over Loan Use in Rural Credit

Programs In Bangladesh. World Dev., 24, 45-63.

Homann, S., van Rooyen, A.F., Moyo, T., Nengomahsa, Z., 2007. Goat production and marketing: Baseline

information for semi-arid Zimbabwe. P.O. Box 776. Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: Int. Crops Res. Inst. Semi-Arid

Tropics. 84pp.

Koch, R.M., Dikeman, M.E., Lipsey, R.J., Allen, D.M., Crouse, J.D., 1979. Characterization of biological types of

cattle. II: III. Carcass composition, quality and palatability. J.Anim. Sci., 49, 448- 460.

Lebbie, S.H.B., Ramsay, K., 1999. A perspective on conservation and management of small ruminant genetic

resources in the sub-Saharan Africa international Livestock Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa. Small

Ruminant Res., 34 (1999), pages 231-247.

Legesse, G., Abebe, G., 2008. The effect of breed type and feeding system of yields of edible and saleable

components of Somalia and Arsi- Bale goats. Liv. Res. Rur. Dev., 20(6): 1-6.

Lemma, S., 2002. Phenotypic classification and description of indigenous sheep types in the Amhara National

Regional State of Ethiopia. MSc thesis. University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

Leng, R.A., 1990. Factors affecting the utilization of poor quality forages by ruminants particulary under tropical

conditions. Nutr. Res. Rev., 3, 277- 303.

Lindvert, M., 2006. Sustainable Development Works and Micro-Finance. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Mid-Sweden

University, Sundsvall, Sweden.

Mahgoub, O., 1997. Meat production characteristics of Omani Dhofari goat. 1. Live weight, growth and carcass and

non carcass characteristics. Intern. J. Anim. Sci., 12, 25-34.

Mahgoub, O., Horton, G.M.J., Olvey, F.H., 1998. Effects of method and time of castration on growth and carcass

characteristics of Omani sheep., AJAS 11 (2), 120- 126.

Mahgoub, O., Lodge, G.A., 1996. Growth and body composition in meat production of Omani Batina goats. S. Rum.

Res., 19(3), 233-246.

Marichal, A., Castro, N., Capote, J., Zamorano, M.J, Arguello, A., 2003. Effects of live weight at slaughter (6, 10 and

-29 kg) on kid carcass and meat quality. Liv. Prod. Sci., 83 (2-3), 247 256.

Mengitie, T., 2008. On-farm performance of Washera sheep at Yilmanadensa and Quarit Woredas of the Amhara

National Regional state. MSc Thesis submitted to Hawassa University, Awassa, Ethiopia, June., 2008.pp45-56.

Morand - Fehr, P., Boyazoglu, J., 1999. Present state and future outlook of the small ruminant sector. Small Rum.

Res., 34, 259-269.

Mourad, M., Gbanamou, G., Balde, I.B., 2001. Carcass characteristics of West African Dwarf goats under extensive

system. Small Rum. Res., 42(1), 81- 85.

Nsoso, S.J., Mannathoko, G.G., Tadubana, T.T., Malela, L., 2004. The effect of methods of castration on live

weight, dressing percentage and linear body measurements of indigenous Tswana goats raised under semiintensive management in South East Botswana. Liv. Res. Rur. Dev., 16 # 2. retrieved November 2, 2004.

Queiroz, J.S., Guierrez-Aleman, N., Pounce de Leon, F. 1985. The ecology and management of small ruminant

production systems in the sertao of Ceara, in the Northeast of Brazil. Agr. System, 22(4), 259-287.

Reynolds, L., Adideran, S., 1994. Composition of village goat herds in Southwest Nigeria. Small Ruminant Research,

, 49-53.

Simela, L., Ndlovu, L.R., Sibanda, L.M., 1999. Carcass characteristics of marketed Matebele goats from south

western Zimbabwe. S. Rum. Res., 32(2), 173- 179.

Sinn, R., Ketzis, J., Chen, T., 1999. The role of women in the sheep and goat sector. S. Rum. Res., 34, 259-269.

Smit, B., Me Nabb, D., Snuckers, J., 1996. Agriculture adaptation to climate variation. Climate change., 33, 7-29.

Tahir, M.A., Al-Jassim, A.F., Abdulla, A.H., 1994. Influence of live weight and castration on distribution of meat, fat

and bone in the carcass of goats. S. Rum. Res., 14(3), 219- 223.

Talore, D.G., 2009. On farm performance evaluation of indigenous sheep and goats in Alaba, southern Ethiopia

MSc Thesis. Dep. Anim. Range Sci., College of Agriculture, School of Graduate Studies, Hawassa University,

Awassa, Ethiopia.

Tefera, T., 2007. Case Study: Improving Women Farmers’ Welfare through a Goat Credit Project and Its

Implications for Promoting Food Security and Rural Livelihoods. J. Rur. Commun. Dev., 2, 123-129.

Tolera, A., 1998. Production situation and some productivity and physical characters of traditionally managed

sheep and goats in Kochore Woreda, southern Ethiopia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 13(1-2), 49-59.

Turkson, P.K., 1992. The practices and problems of rural women involved in small ruminant.production. In: Proc.

West African Commonwealth Veterinary Association / Ghana.Veterinary Medical Association conference. 7-

September. Eds. Amanfu, W. and.Koney, E.B.M., Ghana. pp. 135-140.

VanNiekerk, W.A., Pimentel, P.L. 2004. Goat production in the smallholder section in the Boane Woreda in

Southern Mozambique. South African Journal of Animal Science,.pp34-36.

Warmington, B.G., Kirton, A.H., 1990. Genetic and non-genetic influences on growth and carcass traits of goats. S.

Rum. Res., 3, 147-165.

Webb, E.C., Mamabolo, M.J., 2004. Production and reproduction characteristics of South African indigenous goats

in communal farming systems. South African J. Anim. Sci., 2004, pp28-34.

Winrock International., 1992. Assessment of animal agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Winrock International,

Morrilton. Ark., USA. pp.125.

Workneh A., Rischkowsky, B., King, J.M. 2004. The concept and calculation of net benefits from goats in Ethiopian

smallholdings. Eth. J. Anim. Prod., 4(1), 45-59.

World Bank., 2010. World Bank Indicators-Sub Saharan Africa: Density and Urbanization, World Bank 2010.

Published

2014-08-25

How to Cite

Assan, N. . (2014). Opportunities and needs in development of smallholder goat production systems in Africa. Scientific Journal of Animal Science, 3(8), 203-212. Retrieved from https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/825

Issue

Section

Review Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2 3 > >>