Scientific Journal of Animal Science https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas <p>The Scientific Journal of Animal Science (SJAS)is an international peer-reviewed journal publishing original scientific papers, reviews and short communications on animal science, animal production and related areas. It includes sections on: animal derived food quality; reproduction and physiology (ruminants and non-ruminants); animal production (management, behaviour, welfare, health); nutrition and feeding (ruminant and non-ruminant); genetics (quantitative and molecular) and breeding; aquaculture.</p> en-US onlinesjournals@gmail.com (Executive Managing Editor) onlinesjournals@gmail.com (Farhad Jazideh) Tue, 10 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 3.2.0.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Indigenous livestock and poultry rearing for improved resilience and rural household welfare and livelihood outcomes under climate risks in Sub-Saharan Africa https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1600 <p>Sub-Saharan Africa is endowed with diverse and locally adapted indigenous livestock and poultry breeds/varieties that have continued to sustain production in rural areas, despite the climate change induced harsh and extreme environment associated with diseases and parasite infections, heat stress and installments of feed and water scarcity. The indigenous livestock and poultry genetic resources are critical to the rural communities’ welfare and livelihoods, food security and nutritional status, and other socio-economic environmental benefits. This scenario is on the background that the larger proportion of the Sub-Saharan Africa population resides in rural areas and are mainly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood, especially the reliant on indigenous livestock and poultry populations. Now, the major challenge is that this subsector is highly vulnerable to climate change that has impinged on their ability to sustain their productivity in rural areas. In this case, rural communities should adopt coping strategies to arrest the vulnerability of animal agriculture to avoid food and nutrition deficit at the household level. Climate change impact on indigenous livestock and poultry rearing among rural resource-poor farmers will take different forms that include unsettled rainfall onset and stoppage (which are each either early or late), poor seasonal distribution of rainfall, and less than normal rainfall. Trends in temperature and rainfall have displayed an increase in average maximum temperatures, at the same time average annual rainfall showed a general decline in most cases, which has impacted negatively on grazing or indigenous livestock and poultry feed resources. Drought is a perennial feature associated with climate change, and increasing indigenous livestock and poultry disease and parasite incidences, dwindling water sources, which result in lack of flourishing grazing and livestock pastures are the major climate-related risks that hurt smallholder indigenous livestock and poultry production. Considering all these interrelated issues, an urgent arise for fostering adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change-related risks as a viable option to enable them to protect their livelihoods and ensuring their food and nutrition security. The resource poor rural dwellers have not been passive observers in combating the effects of climate change as they have adopted several local coping strategies seeking to sustain indigenous livestock and poultry production through building resilience in the indigenous and poultry rearing systems. The adopted different forms of coping strategies include promoting native animal genetic resources, diversification, crop-livestock integration, and micro-livestock farming and fodder conservation technologies. Diversification of indigenous livestock and poultry portfolios is a feasible option in fostering resilience to climate risks and thus improving the well-being outcomes of smallholder animal agriculture. The ability to cope with the impact of climate change depends largely on household’s resilience, or its capacity to absorb the impact of and recover from, climate change shock or risks. Therefore, there is a need to develop resilient indigenous livestock and poultry production systems in smallholder resource-poor rural areas. Developing resilient and diverse breeds, climate-smart livestock and poultry husbandry practices and policy support programs are the potential areas for strengthening resilience livestock and poultry rearing for resource-poor rural farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. With the advent of climate change, there is a concern on how to manage the indigenous livestock and poultry sector's growth, so that their socio-economic and environmental benefits can be attained at a lower environmental cost. This present discussion examines climate change risks and coping strategies at the household level in livestock and poultry rearing among rural resource-poor farmers in Sub Saharan Africa.</p> Never Assan Copyright (c) 2020 Never Assan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1600 Tue, 17 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Small holding farmers perception on supplementation and feeding sweet potato peels to ruminants in some selected local government areas of Kebbi State, Nigeria https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1595 <p>The study was conducted to obtain information on farmers’ perception on the utilization of sweet potato peels for livestock feeding. The data were generated by administering a total of 90 structured questionnaires. Results indicated that all the respondents (100%) were males and use sweet potato peel as supplementary feed for their animals. Furthermore, the majority of the farmers were having between 1-10 number of small ruminants (68.9%) feeding them mostly from their crop residues (73.3%) for fattening purposes (53.3%). All the farmers affirm that the peel is available all year round which is solely used for animal feed and usually costs between 42-52 Nigerian Naira per kg. In conclusion, sweet potato peel is a potential feed ingredient in livestock feeding and the involvement of women in crop/livestock production is still a challenge in sub-Saharan Africa since males are still dominating the industry. Thus, women need to be empowered with all the necessary support in the agricultural sector particularly in the study area where the current work was conducted.</p> Aishatu Aliyu Kwaido, Shehu Ahmad Maigandi, Eneh Chigozie Vitalis Copyright (c) 2021 A.A. Kwaido https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1595 Thu, 19 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Sweet potato peels and its effect on feed and nutrients intakes of Uda lambs https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1596 <p>The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding sweet potato peels on feed and nutrient intakes using sixteen Uda lambs with an average weight of 25.3kg in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment. The animals were allotted to four levels of sweet potato peels containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% which constitute the treatments designated 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Treatment one had zero supplementation and served as the control. Data generated from the study were subjected to statistical analysis. Performance of the Uda lambs indicated that average dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, final weight gain and feed conversion ratio indicated no significant (p&gt;0.05) difference between the treatments. However, significant variations were recorded between Treatment 2 and the rest of the treatments in terms of dry matter intake, crude protein intake, crude fibre intake, ether extract intake, ash intake and nitrogen free extract intake (p&lt;0.05). The study showed that dietary inclusion of sweet potato peel in the diet of Uda lambs does not have any detrimental effect on the growth performance of Uda lambs under the condition in which the present experiment was conducted.</p> Aishatu Aliyu Kwaido, Shehu Ahmad Maigandi, Aminu Nasiru, Eneh Chigozie Vitalis Copyright (c) 2021 A.A. Kwaido https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1596 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Assessment of feed resources in urban and peri-urban areas of mid and high land of Bale https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1601 <p>The survey was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of mid and high land of Bale during September 2017 to June 2018 with the objective of identifying available feed resources, its utilization methods and constraints related to feeding. The three major towns of Bale zone Ginir, Goba and Robe and the villages surrounding them and having a border with the town were included. A total of 180 household were selected using both purposive and random sampling techniques. Out of the total respondents 66.1% were indicated feed and feeding system as primary constraints. In peri-urban the principal dry season feed resources available to livestock in the study area include crop-residue, stubble grazing, natural pasture and hay in their descending order. Milled grain, Agro-industrial byproduct and by product of local beverage “atela” are the main supplements used. In urban, feeds are mostly purchased from flour milling and oil producing houses. Despite high price and shortage of supplementary feeds, about 80% of the total respondents are supplementing concentrate to their dairy cattle. The total mean supplements of protein sources 0.94kg and energy sources 1.22kg per lactating cow provided per day and one lactating cow costs 31.66 and 30.87birr in average in urban and peri-urban area respectively to produce the total average milk of 3.65 litters. The overall average daily dairy production output is 65.90 birr and the average net profit is 2.36 and 34.76 birr per day/cow for local and cross breed respectively. Feed quantity and quality problem was the first ranked followed by lack of improved breed and health problem. Hence, to bring a meaningful increase in livestock productivity livestock should be supplemented with a reasonable quantity and quality feeds. Similarly, the traditional husbandry practice, management of natural pasture and feeding value of crop residues should be improved.</p> Kedu Jarso Aliyi Copyright (c) 2020 Aliyi Kedu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1601 Sun, 22 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Responses of farmers on reproductive performance of dairy cows in urban and peri-urban small scale dairy production system: The case of south east Oromia, Ethiopia https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1603 <p>The study was carried out to assess the reproductive performance of dairy cows in urban and peri-urban small scale dairy production system. The response of the farmers were involved factors affecting the reproductive performances such as; household characteristics, cattle management system, feed and feeding system, breeding method used and the reproductive performance parameters. A total of 180 dairy producer households (90 from Urban and 90 from peri-urban) were selected randomly from 6 Towns (Mojo, Batu, Shashemane, Dodola, Robe-Bale and Goba) and interviewed using structured and semi-structured questionnaire. The result of the study indicated that 25.9% of Urban and 22.3% of peri-urban dairy producer households were literates. The mean number of cattle/per household was 4.1±0.28 and 5±0.36 for urban and peri-urban dairy producers respectively. Bellow 15% of the farmers uses regular follow up on estrus detection and herdsman information. More than 90% of the respondents were indicated livestock production was constrained from getting year round feed supply both in quality and quantity. Out of the total respondents 55% were only AI service beneficiaries, 24.4% both natural matting and AI beneficiaries, and 20.6% non-AI beneficiaries. Based on this; the overall average of main parameters such as Age at first calving (AFC), Calving intervals (CI), Days open (DO) and Number of Services per Conception (NSC) are 36.97±0.58 months, 5.76±0.19 months, 14.75±0.19 months and 2.52±0.22 respectively. The result of study suggests that the overall production system observed could be categorized as fairly good in urban and poor in peri-urban. The overall production and reproduction parameters are bellow the standard level for optimum production. The major constraints mentioned by farmers and other stakeholders are; feed and feeding problem, poor cattle management, poor genetic potential and health problem in precedence.</p> Kedu Jarso Aliyi, Mekasha Yoseph , Urge Mengistu Copyright (c) 2020 Aliyi Kedu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjas/article/view/1603 Tue, 24 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100