Clean energy for cooling and heating with ground source heat pumps


  • Abdeen Mustafa Omer Energy Research Institute (ERI), Nottingham, UK


Direct expansion GSHPs, Ground source, Development, Evaluation of the system


In the recent attempts to stimulate alternative energy sources for heating and cooling of buildings, emphasise has been put on utilisation of the ambient energy from ground source heat pump systems (GSHPs) and other renewable energy sources. Exploitation of renewable energy sources and particularly ground heat in buildings can significantly contribute towards reducing dependency on fossil fuels. Energy Research Institute (ERI), between July 2014 and November 2015. This paper highlights the potential energy saving that could be achieved through use of ground energy source. It is concluded that the direct expansion of GSHP are extendable to more comprehensive applications combined with the ground heat exchanger in foundation piles and the seasonal thermal energy storage from solar thermal collectors. This study highlights the energy problem and the possible saving that can be achieved through the use of the GSHP systems. This article discusses the principle of the ground source energy, varieties of GSHPs, and various developments.


Anandarajah, A., 2003. Mechanism controlling permeability changes in clays due to changes in pore fluids. J. Geotech. Geo-environ. Eng., 129(2), 163-172.

Anderson, O., 1998. Heat pump supported ATES applications in Sweden. Newsletter IEA Heat Pump Centre, 16(2), 19-20.

Bourna, J., Koppenol, A., 1984. Investigation into a complete ground-to-water heat pump system in a single-family dwelling focusing on the application of a vertical subsoil heat exchanger. Newsletter IEA Heat Pump Centre 2(4), 9-15.

Breembroek, G., 1998. The role of heat pumps in a deregulated energy market. Newsletter IEA Heat Pump Centre, 16(3), 26-27.

Breembroek, G., Lazáro, F., 1998. International Heat Pump Status and Policy Review. Part 1 - Analysis. Analysis Report No. HCP-AR7, IEA Heat Pump Centre, Sittard/NL.

Claesson, J., Eskilson, P., 1988. Conductive heat extraction to a deep borehole. Thermal Analysis andDimensioning Rules. Energy, 13(6), 509-527.

Department of the Environment (DOE), 1998. Energy Consumption Guide No.19. Washington, DC. USA.

Eklöf, C., Gehlin S., 1996. TED - A Mobile Equipment for Thermal Response Test. p. 62, Lulea University of Technology. Lulea, Sweden.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USA., 1993. Space Conditioning: The Next Frontier, Washington, DC.

Eskilson, P., Claesson, J., 1998. Simulation model for thermally interacting heat extraction boreholes. Numerical Heat Transfer 13(1), 149-165.

Geo Exchange in Federal Facilities (GEFF)., 2009. Geothermal Heat Pump. Consortium Brattleboro, VT (800), 861-0954.

Gilby, D.J., Hopkirk, R.J., 1985. The coaxial vertical heat probe with solar recharge: Numerical Simulation and Performance Evaluation. Proc. 2nd WS on SAHPGCS Vienna: 443-456.

Hellstrom, G., Sanner, B., Klugescheid, M., Gonka, T., Martensson, S., 1997. Experiences with the Borehole Heat Exchanger Software EED. Proc. 7th International Conference on Energy Storage MEGASTOCK 97, 247-252.

Hopkirk, R.J., Eugster, W.J., Rybach, L., 1988. Vertical earth heat probes: Measurements and Prospectsin Switzerland. Proc. 4th International Conference on Energy Storage, JIGASTOCK. 88, 367-371.

Http:// 1.abstract.html

Jo, H.Y., Katsumi, T., Benson, C.H., Edil, T.B., 2001. Hydraulic conductivity and swelling of non-prehydrated GCLs permeated with single- species salt solutions. Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environ. Eng., 127(7), 557-567.

Knoblich, K., Sanner, B., Klugescheid, M., 1993. Ground source heat pumps. Giessener Geologische Schriften, 49(3), 192-196, Giessen.

Luo, L., Fan, Y., Tondeur, D., 2007. Heat exchanger: from micro to multi- scale design optimisation. Int. J. Energ. Res., 31, 1266-1274.

Luo, L., Tondeur, D., Le Gall, H., Corbel, S., 2007. Constructal approach and multi- scale components. Appl. Therm. Eng., 27, 1708-1714.

Malin, Nadav, Alex Wilson, 2000. Ground-Source Heat Pumps: Are They Green? Environmental Building News, July. Building Green, Inc., 9(7/8).

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA., 2009. Ground source heat pumps investment. Denver: USA.

Omer, A.M., 2008a. Energy demands for heating and cooling equipment systems and technology advancements. In: Natural Resources: Economics, Management and Policy, 131-165.

Omer, A.M., 2008b. Ground-source heat pumps systems and applications. Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev., 12(8), 344- 371.

Omer, A.M., 2008c. Focus on low carbon technologies: the positive solution. United Kingdom, December Renew. Sustain. Energ. Rev., 12(9), 2331-2357.

Omer, A.M., 2009. Non-conventional energy systems and environmental pollution control. In: Energy Costs, International Developments, ISBN: 978-1-60741-700-2, Editor: Leszek Kowalczyk and Jakub Piotrowski, © Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York: USA. 39-77.

Omer, A.M., 2015. Low energy building design: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning, Sci. J. Rev., England, 4(2), 30-46.

Philappacopoulus, A.J., Berndt, M.L., 2001. Influence of de-bonding in ground heat exchangers used with geothermal heat pumps. Geotherm., 30(5), 527-545.

Rybach, L., Eugster, W.J., 1997. Borehole heat exchangers to tap shallow geothermal resources: The Swiss Success Story. In: S. F. Simmons, O. E.

Rybach, L., Hopkirk, R., 1995. Shallow and deep borehole heat exchangers - achievements and prospects. Pro. World Geothermal Congress, 2133-2139.

Rybach, L., Wilhelm, J., 1999. Swiss geothermal society (SGS) presentation. IGA News No. 35, January – March, 9-10.

Sanner, B. Schwalbach., 1986. Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) Research Station. Newsletter IEA Heat Pump Centre 4(4), 8-10.

Sanner, B., 1995. Earth heat pumps and underground thermal energy storage in Germany. Proc. World Geothermal Congress, 2167-2172.

Sanner, B., 1999. Prospects for ground-source heat pumps in Europe. Newsletter IEA Heat Pump Centre 17(1), 19-20.

Sanner, B., Klugescheid, M., Knoblich, K., 1996. Numerical modeling of conductive and convective heat transport in the ground for UTES, with Example. Proc. Eurotherm Seminar 49, Eindhoven, 137-146.

Space Heating Technology Atlas (SHTA)., 1996. Energy Sources for future, Inc. Boulder, CO, (303), 440-8500,

Van De Venn, H., 1999. Status and Trends of the European Heat Pump Market. Newsletter IEA Heat Pump Centre, 17(1), 10-12.

VDI (The Association of German Engineers)., 1998. Thermal Use of the Underground. VDI- guideline 4640, Proposal, Part 1 and 2, Beuth Verlage, Berlin.



How to Cite

Mustafa Omer, A. . (2016). Clean energy for cooling and heating with ground source heat pumps. Scientific Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(1), 109-124. Retrieved from



Review Article