Parasitemia and Antimalarial-Induced Histological Alterations and Oxidative stress in Infected Mice

Authors

  • I.O. Oyewole Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology
  • G.N. Anyasor Department of Biochemistry
  • O.O. Aina Department of Biochemistry, The Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
  • A.A. Ogunnowo Department of Basic sciences, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Nigeria
  • B.A. Sorinwa Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo Nigeria
  • B.E. Abraham Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo Nigeria

Keywords:

Plasmodium berghei, antimalaria, oxidative stress, organs, mice

Abstract

In lieu of the reports on re-emergence of chloroquine sensitivePlasmodium falciparum, the choice of the drug for the treatment of malariaespecially in the endemic areas may not be ruled out. Here, we reported the antioxidative statusand histology of some vital organs in mice infected with P. berghei and subsequentlytreated with chloroquine. The study was a 4 by 10 model design as follows, thecontrol non-infected, the infected (IN) and chloroquine-treated infected(CqTI)/non-infected (CqTNI) mice. The challenged animals were subjected to fivedays treatment after parasitemia was established using Gemsa stain. Assays wereconducted on the animals following standard procedures. The results showed thatparasitemia and Chloroquine induced oxidative stress in (IN) and (CqTNI)groups. This was indicated by significant (p<0.05) changes in theantioxidant defence indices viz superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione(GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA)and protein concentration. There were also alterations in the architectures ofsome vital organs such as liver, kidney and heart of the experimental groupscompared with control. The subsequent treatment of the infected group withChloroquine (CqTI) restored some of the indices altered during the infection toa normal level. This study shows that malaria and its radical treatment in vivo can induce oxidative stress which inturn can cause injury to the host tissues particularly during chronicadministration of Chloroquine-an implication for prolong intake of the drug.

References

Akkus, I., 1995. Effects of free radicals and pathophysiological. Lancet., 32, 1-76.

Anyasor God’swill Nduka, Isaac Olayinka Oyewole, Kayode Olushola Ogunwenmo and Adegoke Ayowole., 2012. Coartemether Induced Oxidative and Hepatic Damage in Plasmodium berghei Strain Anka Infected Mice. Bull. Env. Contam. Toxicol., 88 (1), 108-111.

Areekul, S., Boonme, Y., 1986. Catalase activity in red cell and liver of mice infected with Plasmodium bergei. Southeast Asia J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health., 17, 48–52.

Aniya, Y., Naito, A., 1993. Oxidative stress-induced activation of microsomal glutathione S-transferase in isolated rat liver. Biochem. Pharmacol., 45, 37–42.

Casado, A.R., Dela Torre, M., Lopez-Fernandez, D., Carrascosa, M.C., Casado, C., Ramirez, V., 1995. Superoxide dismutase and catalase blood levels in patients with malignant diseases. Canc. Lett., 91, 19–23.

Das, B.S., Patnaik, J.K., Mahanty, S., Mishra, D., Mahanty, D.,Satpathy, S.K., Bose, T.K., 1993. Plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation products in falciparum malaria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 49, 720–725.

Desai, K.R.., Dattani, J.J., Rajput, D.K., Moid, N., Yagnik, B.J., Highland, H.N., George, L.B., 2010. Effect of chronic administration of chloroquine on the gastrocnemius muscle, spleen and brain of Swiss albino mice. Asian J. Trad. Med., 5(2), 62-69

Erel, O., Kocyigit, A., Avci, S., Aktepe, N., Bulut, V., 1997. Oxidative stress and antioxidative status of plasma and erythrocytes in patients with malaria. Clin. Biochem., 30, 631–639

Farombi, E.O., Emerole, G.O., 1998. Interference of common antimalarial drugs with some hepatic microsomal components and drug metabolism, potential implication for toxicity. S. Afr. J. Sci., 94, 303–304.

Farombi, E.O., 2000. Influence of amodiaquine treatment on microsomal lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems of rats. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 87, 249–254.

Farombi, E.O., Shyntum, Y.Y., Emerole, G.O., 2003. Influence of Chloroquine Treatment and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Infection on Some Enzymatic and Non-enzymatic Antioxidant Defense Indices in Humans. Drug Chem. Toxicol., 26(1), 59-71.

Glatt, H., Friedberg, T., Grover, P.L., Sims, P., Oesch, F., 1983. Inactivation of a diol-epoxide and a K-region epoxlde with high efficiency by glutathione transferase X. Cancer Res., 43, 5713-5717.

Gornall, A.G., Bardwill, C.S., David, M.M., 1949. Determination of serum proteins by means of biuret reaction. J. Biol. Chem., 177,751-766.

Gutteridge, J.M., willins, S., 1982. Copper dependant hydroxyl radical damage to ascorbic acid. Formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive products. FEBS Letts., 137, 327-330.

Habig, W.H., Pabst, M.J., Jakoby, W.B., 1974. Glutathione -S-transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J. Biol. Chem., 249,7130-7139.

Harvie, M., Jordan, T.W., Flamme, A.C.L., 2007. differential liver protein expression during schistosomiasis. Infect. Immun., 75(2), 736-744.

Iyawe, H.O.T., Onigbinde, A.O., 2012. Chloroquine and vitamin treatment on the antioxidant status of critical tissues of malaria infected models. Int. J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health., 1(2), 1-7.

Iyawe, H.O.T., Onigbinde, A.O., 2009. Impact of Plasmodium berghei and Chloroquine on Haematological and Antioxidant indices in Mice, Asian J. Biochem., 4(1), 30-35.

Jense, C.J., Ramesa, R.J., Waters, A.P., 2006. High-efficacy transfection and drug selection of genetically transformed blood stages of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Nature Protocols., 1,346-356

Jodah, S.K., John, R.S., Michael, L.P., Clearfield, D.O., 2008. Effect of oxidative Stress. Biochem. Analysis., 30(12), 1145-1150.

Jollow, D.J., Mitchell, J.R., Zampaglione, N., Gillete, J., 1974. A perspective on the role of chemically reactive metabolites of foreign compounds in toxicity. Pharmacol., 11,151-169.

Kidd, P.M., 1997. Glutathione systemic protestant against oxidative and free radical damage. Altern Med Rev., 2,155-176

Kochar, D.K., Agarwal, P., Kochar, S.K., Jain, R., Rawat, N., Pokharna, R.K., Kachhawa, S., Srivastava, T., 2003. Hepatocytes dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Int. J. Med., 96, 505–512.

Krishna Mohan Surapaneni, G., Venkataramana. Status of lipid peroxidation, glutathione, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and antioxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis. India Med. J., 61(1) , 9-14.

Kublin, J.G., Cortese, J.F., Njunju, E.M., Mukadam, R.A.G., Wirima, J.J., Kazembe, P.N., Djimdé, A.A., Kouriba, B., Taylor, T.E., Plowe, C.V., 2003. Reemergence of chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum malaria after cessation of chloroquine use in Malawi. J. Infect. Dis., 187, 1870–1875.

Magwere, T., Naik, Y.S., Hasler, J.A., 1997. Effects of Chloroquine treatment on antioxidant enzymes in rat liver and kidney. Free Rad. Biol. Med., 22, 321–327.

Magwere, T., Naik, Y.S., Hasler, J.A., 1997, Primaquine alters antioxidant enzyme profiles in rat liver kidney. Free Rad. Res., 27, 173–179

Mahakur, A.C., Panda, S.N., Nanda, B.K., Bose, T.K., Satpathy, S.R., Misra, Y., 1983. Malaria Acute Renal Failure. J. Assoc Phys India., 31,613-616

Maniam, P., Hassan, Z.A.A., Embi, N., Sidek, H.M., 2012. Changes in Hepatic Phosphoprotein Levels in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei. Sains Malays., 41(6), 721–729

Mishra, N.C., Kabilan, L., Shrma, A., 1994. Oxidative and malaria infected erythrocytes. India J. Mal., 31, 77-87.

Patel, S.P., Katewa, S.D., Katyare, S.S., 2005. Effect of antimalarials treatment on rat liver lysosomal function- an in vivo study. Indian J. Clin. Biochem., 20(1), 1-8.

Pham- huy, L.A., He, H., Pham- huy, C., 2008. Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int. J. Biomed. Sc., 4(2), 89-92.

Rajapurkar, M.M., 1994. Renal Involvement in Malaria. J. Postgrad Med., 40,13-134

Sand, C., Hortsmann, S., Schmidt, A., Sturn, A., Bolte, S., krueger, A., Lutgehetmann, M., Pollok, J.M., Libert, C., Heussler, V.T., 2005. The liver stage of Plasmodium berghei inhibits host cell apoptosis. Mol. Microbiol., 58(3), 731-742.

Saroj, K.M., Bhabani, S.D., 2008. Malaria and Acute Kidney Injury. Sem. Nephrol., 28, 395-408.

Sedlak, J., Lindsay, R.H., 1968. Estimation of total protein bound and non protein sulphydryl groups in tissues with Ellman’s reagent. Anal Biochem., 25(1),192-205.

Seth, R.K., Saini, A.S., Jaswal, T.S. 1985. Plasmodium bergei, oxidant defense system. Exp. Parasitol., 60, 414–416.

Sharrock, W.W., Suwanarusk, R., Lek-Uthai, U., Edstein, M.D., Kosaisavee, V., Travers, T., Jaidee, A., Sriprawat, K., Price, R.N., Nosten, F., Russel, B., 2008. Plasmodium vivax trophozoites insensitive to chloroquine. Mal. J., 7, 94-99.

Sherman, I.W., 2008. Reflections on a century of malaria biochemistry, In vivo and in vitro models. Adv. Parasitol., 67, 25-47.

Siddiq Nikhat, J., Puri, S.K., Dutta, G.P., Maheshwari, R.K., Pandey, V.C., 1999. Studies on hepatic oxidatives and antioxidant defence system during chloroquine/polyICLC treatment of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infected mice. Mol. and cell. Biochem., 194,170-183.

Sinha, A.K., 1972. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal Biochem., 47,389-394.

Sohail, M., kumar. R., kaul, A., Arif, E., kumar, S., Adak, T., 2010. Polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase P1 is associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria compared to P. falciparum and upregulates the GST level during malarial infection. Free Rad. Biol. Med., 49(11), 1746-1754.

Stocker, R., Hunt, N.H., Weidemanm, M.J., Clark, I.A., 1986. Protection of vitamin E from oxidation by increased ascorbic acid content within Plasmodium vinckei infected erythrocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta., 876, 294–299.

Surapaneni, K.M., Venkataramana, G., 2007. Status of lipid peroxidation, glutathione, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and antioxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis. Indian J. Med. Sc., 61 (1) 9-14.

Thabrew, M.I., Ioannides, C., 1984. Inhibition of rat hepatic mixed function oxidases by antimalarial drugs, selectivity for cytochromes P450 and P448. Chem. Biol. Int., 51, 285–294

Ueda, S., Nakamura, H., Nakamura, T., Yodoi, J., 2005. Oxidative stress, Inflammation and Health. Redox Regulation of inflammatory Tissue damage by thioredoxin. Taylor Francis Group., USA. Pp. 41.

Umar, R.A., S.W. Hassan, M.J., Ladan, N.J., et al., 2008. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Nigeria children at the transition to artemisinin based combination therapy, Res. J. Parasitol., 3, 32-39

World Health Organization., 1997., Management of uncomplicated malaria and the use of antimalarial drugs for the protection of travellers. (Unpublished document WHO/MAL/96.1075). Geneva.

Published

2014-05-29

How to Cite

Oyewole, I. ., Anyasor, G. ., Aina, O. ., Ogunnowo, A. ., Sorinwa, B. ., & Abraham, B. . (2014). Parasitemia and Antimalarial-Induced Histological Alterations and Oxidative stress in Infected Mice. Scientific Journal of Biological Sciences, 3(5), 38-46. Retrieved from https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjbs/article/view/954

Issue

Section

Original Article