Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths on equines in and around Debre Markos, Ethiopia
Keywords:Donkeys, Horses, Ethiopia, Debre Markos, Gastrointestinal parasites, Prevalence
The study was conducted from October-2013 to June-2014 in and around Debre Markos, Ethiopia to assess the major gastrointestinal helminthes of equines (donkeys and horses), to determine their prevalence and find associations between measurable parameters and parasites burden. A total of 384 faecal samples (215 donkeys and 169 horses) were collected randomly for qualitative and quantitative faecal analysis. The overall prevalence of different parasites was found to be 86.51% in donkeys and 78.10% in horses. In the study area, 3.87% of donkeys and 6.13% of horses harbored only one type of parasite (single infection), whereas 96.13% of donkeys and 93.87% of horses harbored two or more types of parasites (mixed infection). The parasites encountered in both donkeys and horses in the study period were Strongyles (75.27% and 59.85%), T. strongylus axei (41.94% and 40.15), T. dontophorus (43.01% and 34.85) P. equorum (18.82 and 18.94) and Fasciola (22.58% and 18.94), respectively. Based on sex only the prevalence rate of strongyle was statistically significant (p<0.05) in both donkeys and horses. The prevalence of T. strongylus, T. dontophorus, P. equorom and Fasciola was statistically significant (p<0.05) between age groups of donkeys, but only the prevalence of T. strongly was statistically significant (p<0.05) between age groups of horses. Parasitism and other health problems were identified affecting the health and welfare of equines. Government or other development agencies should include donkeys and horses in their priority lists of research and develop sustainable prevention and control methods that would prevent the high transmission of gastrointestinal helminths and other parasites of equines.
Andrews, S.J., 1999. The life cycle of Fasciola hepatica. In: Fasciolosis (Dalton, J. P. Ed.). CABI Publishing, Walling ford, UK, 1-30.
Austin, S.M., 1994. Large strongyles in horses. 16(5), 650-656.
Ayele Gizachew, Dinka, A., 2010. Study on Strongyles and Parascaris parasites population in working donkeys of centeral Shoa, Ethiopia. Livst. Res. Rural. Dev., 22(12), 1-5.
Ayele Gizchew Feseha, G., Bojia, E., Joe, A., 2006. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of donkeys in Dugda Bora District, Ethiopia. Livest. Res. Rural. Dev., 18(10), 1-11.
Ayen, M., 2004. Sheep and goat marketing system study in Amhara national regional state head of government office.
Beelitz, P., Gobel, E., Gothe, R., 1999. Indoparasites of donkeys and hores kept in upper Bavaria. Species spectrum and incidence. Tieztl prax. 24, 471-475.
Briggs, K., Reinemeyer, C., French, D., Kaplan, R., 2004. Strongyles, the worst of the worm. Parasite primer part-4.
Crane, M., Sevendsen, E., 1997. The professional hand book of the donkey, 3rd ed. White book LTD, W. 140. By Londen, 29.
Dagmawe, N., 2007. In depth investigation of relationship between index property and swelling characteristic expensive soil in Bahir Dar, M.Sc thesis. Submitted to Addis Ababa University.
Dawson, K., 2003. A non lethal method for assessment of efficacy of antiparasitic against parasites in horses. Vet. Parasitol., 115, 67-70.
Deprez, P., Vercruysse, J., 2003. Treatment and follow-up of clinical Cyathostomosis in horses. J. Vet. Med. 50, 527.
Duncan, J., 1973. Lifecycle, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of strongylus vulgaris in the horses. Equin. Vet. J., 5, 20-25.
Duncan, J., 1974. Feild studies on epidemioligy of mixed strongyle infection in horses. Vet. Rec., 94, 337-345.
English, A., 1979. The epidemiology of equines Strongylosis in southern Queens land. Seasonal varation in Arterial population of the Strongylus vulgaris, and the prevalence of some helminths. Aust. Vet. J., 55, 310-314.
Enviromental protection and land administration use aouthority (EPLAUA) and city administration (CA), 2009. Bahir Dar city administrative boundary map ARBWUD. Adiss Ababa, NUPI.
Eva, O., 2005. Prevalence and controle of strongyle nematode infection of horses in Sweeden. Doctoral Diss. Dept. Biomed. Scie. Vet. Pud. Hlth. SLU. Act. Univ. Tayis. Agr. Sueci., 29, 1-3.
Feseha, G., Mohammed, A., Yilma, J., 1991. Vermicular Endoparasitism in donkeys, muels and horses of Debre Zeit and Menagesha, Ethiopia. Donkeys, muels and horses in Tropical Agricultural Development. Proce. Colloq. on donkeys, muels and horses. Edis. Fielding, D. and Pearson, A. University of Edinburg, Center for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. UK, 156-166.
Fielding, D., 1991. Horses, donkeys and mules in tropical agricultural development.3rd ed. University of Edinburgh, 140-145.
Fikru, R., Reta, D., Bizunesh, M., 2005. Prevalence of equines gastrointestinal parasites in western high lands of Oromia, Ethiopia. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 161-166.
Foster and Smith, 1997. Internal Parasites Common in Horse.
Fred, O., Pascal, K., 2006. Extension approach to improving the welfare of working equines. Kenya Network for Dissemination of Agricultural Technologies (KENDAT), 62-66.
Gebreab, F., 1998. Proceeding of international conference on equines infectious diseases held in Dubi, United Arab Emirate.
Gebreab, F., 2003. Common parasites of working donkeys. The donkeys health abd welfare project. The donkey Sanctvary, Ethiopia.
Gebreab, F., Abdella, M., Jobre, Y., 1991. Veternary endoparasitism in donkeys of Debre Zeit and Mengesha, Ethiopia. Strategic treatment with Evermection and Fenbendazole. Faculty of Veternary Medicine, AAU.
Graber, M., 1970. Helminths et helminthiasis des equides (anes et. Cheveaux) dela Republique de tehad. Revue D. Elevage et. de medicine veterinarie de pays tropicau. 23, 207-222.
Griffiths, H.J., 1978. Hand book of veterinary parasitology. Domestic Animal of North America. Uiversity of Minnesota, 56.
Hammami, H., Hand, N., Aayadi, A., 1999. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafa Oases (South west of Tunisia). Parasite, 14(3), 261-264.
Hansen, J., Perry, B., 1994. The epidemiology, diagnosis and control of heliminth parasites of ruminants. ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya, 73-81.
Hardy, K.D., 1997. Controlling internal parasites of equines. College of veterinary medicine. University of Hissouri.
Hend, R., 1986. Epidemiology and control of equine stronglosis at Newnaeket. Equi. Vet. J., 18, 447-452.
Hendrix, C., 1998. Diagnostic veternary parasitology. 2nd edn. Mosby.
Hosseini, S.H., Meshgi, B., Eslami, A., Bokai, S., Sobhani, M., Ebrahimi Samani, R., 2009. Prevalence and biodiversity of helminth parasites in donkeys Equus asinus) in Iran. Int. J. Vet. Res., 3(2), 95-99.
Hundson, D., Grotelueschen, D., Rice, D., 1996. Equines internal parasites. University of Nebraska. Cooperative Extension Educational program.
Ibrahim, N., Berhanu, T., Deressa, B., Tolosa, T., 2011. Survey of prevalence of helminth parasites of donkeys in and around Hawassa town, Southern Ethiopia. Glob. Vet., 6(3), 223-227.
Johnson, P., 2000. Controlling internal parasites of horses. University of Missuri, Colombia.
Johnston, L., 1998. Strongylus vulgaria. Internal parasites and parasitic disease of domestic animals. University of Pennsyluania.
Karki, K., Mandhar, P., 2006. Preliminary investigation of prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of mules in Udayapur district.
Krecek, R., Reinecke, R., Horak, I., 2002. Internal parasites of horses on mixed Grassveld and Bushveled in Transveal, Repoblic of South Africa. Vet. Parasitol., 34, 135-145.
Leland, S., Drung, J., Wyant, Z., Elan, G., 1961. Studies on Trichostrongyles axei. Some quantitative and pathologic aspects of natural and experimental infections on horses. J. Vet. Res., 128-138.
Lima, J.D., Lima, W.S., Guimaraes, A.M., 1990. Epidemiology of bovine nematode parasites in Southestern Brasil. In Guerrero, J., Leaning, WHD. Eds. Epidemiology of bovine nematode parasites in Americas. Proc, MSD., AGUET symposium, Bahia Brasil, 49-63.
Lima, W.S., 1998. Seasonal infection patern of gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in Minas Grais state, Brasil. Vet. Parasitol., 74, 203-214.
Marquardt, W.C., Demaree, R.S., Grieve, R.B., 2000. Parasitology and Vector Biology. 2nd ed. London, Harcourt Academic Press, 381-385.
Mattioli, R.C., Zinsstag, J., Pfister, K., 1993. The prevalence of gastrointestinal strongyl and level of strongyle egg outputs in relation to husbandry practices in the draught donkey population in Gambia.
Mekibib, B., Manegerew, M., Tadese, A., Abuna, F., Megersa, B., Regassa, A., Mekuria, S., Abene, R., 2010. Prevalence of haemoparasites and association risk factores in working donkeys in Adigudem and Kwiha district of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Intern. J. Vet. Med., 8(1), 1-7.
Merck, 2003. Oxyuris equi. In the merk veternary manual. merckvet manual.com/MVM/isp.
Mfitilodze, M.W., Hutchinson, G.W., 1990. Prevalence and abundance of equine strongyles in tropical Australia. Am. Soc. Parasitol., 76(4), 489-494.
Morgan, E., Hetzel, N., Povach, C., Colex, G., 2005. Prevalence and diagnosis of parasites of the stomach and small intestine in horse in Southwest England. Vet. Res., 132, 179-182.
Mulat, B., 2005. Preliminary study on helminthosis of equines in south and north Wollo Zones. J. Vet. Assoc., 9(2), 25-37.
National equines welfare council (NEWC), 2005. Equines industry welfare guidelines comedium for horse, ponies and donkey, 2nd ed . Body condition scoring for horses and donkeys, 28-29.
Oge, H., 1992. The general status of helminth infections in horses according to faecal examination in Turkey.
Pal, R.A., Qayyum, M., 1992. Breed, age and sex wise distribution of helminthes of sheep and goats in and araund Rawalpidi region. Pak. Vet. J., 12, 60-63.
Pandey, V.S., 1980. Epidemiological observation on lung worms, Dictyocoulus arnfieldy, in donkeys from Morocco. J. Helmint., 54, 275-279.
Pandit, B.A., Shahardar, R.A., Jalabal, L., 2008. Prevalence of GI parasitic infections in equines of Kashimir valley, 3(1), 1-4.
Paudel, S., 2007. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in horses with special reference to strongylus species of sainik stud farm center Bharatpur, Chitwan, Blue Cross Annu Bull. NVSA, 9, 104-105.
Radostitis, O., Blood, D., Gay, C., 1994. Parasitic disease. In. Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pig, Goats and Horses. 8th ed. English. Language. Book society/Bailliere tindal.
Reinmeyer, C., Smith, S., Gabel, A., Herd, R., 1984. The prevalence and intensity of internal parasites of horses in USA. Vet. Parasitol., 15, 75-83.
Sapkota, C.R., 2009. A report on prevalence of helminths parasites in mules of brick kiln of Lalitpur district. Himalayan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. Purbanchal University Gatthaghar, Bhaktapur.
Seri, H.I.T., Hassan, M.M., Salih, A.D., Abakar, 2004. A survey of gastrointestinal nematodes or donkeys (Equus asinus) in Khartum state. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 3(11), 736-739.
Sevendsen, E.D., 1986. The professional hand book of donkeys, sovereign printing group, England, 77-78.
Sevendsen, E.D., 1997. Parasites abroad. The professional hand book of the donkey, 3rd edition. Whittet Books Limited, 18 Anley Road, London W14 OBY, 166-182.
Shrikhande, G.B., Rewatkar, S.G., Deshmukh, S.S., Maske, D.K., Raghorte, Y.M., 2009. The incidence of helminth parasites in donkeys in Nagpur region. Vet. World., 2(6), 224.
Slocombe, J., 1979. Prevalence and treatment of tapworm in horses. Can. Vet. J., (20), 136-140.
Soulsby, E.J.L., 1978. Helmihths, Arthropodes and protozoa of domesticated animals, 6th edn. The English language book society and Bailliere, Tindall and Cassell Ltd, 207.
Soulsby, E.J.L., 1982. Helmihthes, Arthropodes and protozoa of domesticated animals. 7th ed. The English language book society, Bailliere, Tindall. London, 650-700.
Soulsby, E.J.L., 1996. Text book of veterinary clinical parasitology. Helminths, Blackwell scientific publication, Oxford. 1, 1100-1120.
Takele, B., Nibret, E., 2011. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of donkyes and mules in and around Bahir Dar. Ethiop. Vet. J., 17(1), 13-30.
Tegegne, A., Crawford, W., 2000. Draft animal power use in Ethiopia. In Draft animal news, No. 33, Descember. Center for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh.
Teklie, N., Ashenafi, Y., 2010. Effect of land use/land cover management on koga reservoir sedimentation. Nile Basin Capacity Building Net work, 126.
Thrusfield, M., 1995. Veterinary epidemiology. 2nd ed. Blackwell wissenchafts verlag, Brlin, Germany.
Troncy, P.M., 1989. Helminths of livestock and poultry in tropical Africa. Internal Manual of Tropica Vet erinary Parasitology. The Technical center for Agricultural and Rural Co-opration (CTA), 1-178.
Umur, S., Acici, M., 2009. A survey on helminth infection of equines in the central Black sea region, Turkey. Turk. J. Vet, Sci., 33(5), 373-379.
Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Jennings, F.W., 1996. Veterinary parasitology. 2n d ed. Blackwell Science, 42-47.
Uslu, U., Guclu, F., 2007. Prevalence of endoparasites in horses and donkeys in Turkey. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy., 51, 237-240.
WHO, 1995. Control of food borne Trematode infections. Technical Report Series. 849, 61.
Yosef, S., Feseha, G., Abebe, W., 2001. Survey on helminthosis of equines in Wonchi, Ethiopia. Jo. Ethiop. Vet. Assoc., 5, 49-67.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Bewketu Takele, Ayalew Sisay
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.