Ectoparasites and haemoparasites of chickens in sokoto, northwestern Nigeria

Authors

  • M. Usman Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto-Nigeria
  • J. P. Fabiyi Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto-Nigeria
  • A. A. Mohammed Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto-Nigeria
  • U. M. Mera Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, SokotoNigeria
  • A. Mahmuda Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto-Nigeria
  • M. O. Alayande Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto-Nigeria
  • M. D. Lawal Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto-Nigeria
  • A. Danmaigoro Department of Anatomy,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, SokotoNigeria

Keywords:

Ectoparasites, Haemoparasites, Chickens

Abstract

A study to determine the prevalence of ecto and haemoparasites of chickens was carried out in Sokoto metropolis between April and August 2010. A total of 200 adult chickens from 2 different production systems (commercial and free range) were sampled. Thin blood smear was used to analyse the blood sample while the ectoparasites recovered were properly examined. All chickens from the free range production system were infested with ectoparasites and 12% had haemoparasites. Only 50% of the chickens in the commercial system had ectoparasites. One tick, five lice and one species of haemoparasite were identified with the following prevalences (free range %/commercial %): Tick; Argas persicus (66/0); Lice; Amyrsidea powelli (50/0), Goniocotes gallinae (74/16), Goniodes gigas (56/16), Lipeurus tropicalis (94/34), Menacanthus cornutus (100/50) and haemoparasite; Plasmodium gallinaceum (12/0). In general, the occurrence of the parasites was significantly influenced by production system being significantly higher in the free range system than the commercial system of production (p< 0.0001).

References

Abdullahi, S.U., Abdu, P.A., Ibrahim, M.A., George, J.B.D., Saidu, L., Adekeye, J.O., Kazeem, H.M., 1992. Incidence of

diseases of poultry caused by non-viral infectious agents in Zaria, Nigeria. Worlds Poultry Congress,

Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 20-24th September, 1992. Book of Proceedings. pp. 159.

Adene, D.F., Dipeolu, O.O., 1975. Survey of blood and ectoparasites of domestic fowls in Ibadan, Western state of

Nigeria. Bull. Anim. Heal. Prod. Afri. 23, 333-35.

Arends, J.J., 2003. External parasites and poultry pests. In: Saif Y.M (ed). Diseases of Poultry, 11th edition. Ames:

Iowa State University Press, 905-930.

Barnes, J.H., 1974. Plasmodium spp infecting turkeys in Northern Nigeria. Veterinary Records, 95(10), 218-219.

Barnes, J.H., 1975. Avian Spirochaetosis in Northern Nigeria. Ph.D Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.

Biu, A.A., Agbede, R.I.S, Peace, P., 2007. Studies on ectoparasites of poultry in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Niger. J.

Parasitol. 28 (2), 69-72.

Bunza, M.D.A., Yahaya, M.M., Muhammad, A.I., Saidu, A.R., 2008. A survey of tick species infesting domestic birds

sold at Sokoto central market, Nigeria. Sokoto J. Vet. Sci. 7 (2), 56-58

Caswell, G.B., 1959. Insects and Other Arthropods Affecting Livestock on the Faculty of Agriculture Farm. University

College, Ibadan, Faculty of Agriculture. Division Report No 5 p.21.

DeVaney, J.A., 1976. Effects of the chicken body louse Menacanthus stramineus on caged layers. Poultry Sci. 55,

-435.

Edgar, S.A., King, D.F., 1950. Effects of the body louse Menacanthus stramineus on mature chickens. Poultry

Science, 29, 214-219.

Fabiyi, J.P., 1980a. Survey of lice infesting domestic fowls on the Jos Plateau, Northern Nigeria. Bull. Anim. Heal.

Prod. Afri. 28(3), 215-219.

Fabiyi, J.P., 1980b. Arthropod parasites of domestic fowl and guinea fowl on the Jos Plateau, Northern Nigeria.

Trop. Anim. Heal. Prod. 12, 193-194.

George, B.D.J., Saidu, L., Abdu, P.A., 2004. A review and case reports of parasitic arthropods infesting local poultry

and their roles in the transmission of haemoparasites in Nigeria. Trop. Vet. 22, (2), 61-71.

Gless, E.E., Raun, E.S., 1959. Effects of chicken body louse infestation on egg production in the hen. Poultry Sci. 27,

-642.

Kaschula, V.R., 1961. A comparison of the spectrum of disease in village and in modern poultry flocks in Nigeria.

Bull. Epizoot. Dis. pp, 397-407.

Njunga, G.R., 2003. Ecto- and haemoparasites of chickens in Malawi with emphasis on the effects of the chicken

louse, Menacanthus cornutus. MSc. Thesis. Royal Veterinary and Agriculture University, Copenhagen,

Denmark. pp 2-18

Okaeme, A.N., 1988. Ectoparasites of Guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris galeata pallas) and local domestic chicken

(Gallus gallus) in Southern Guinea, Nigeria. Vet. Res. Communi. 12, 277-280.

Sychra, O., Harmat, P., Literak, I., 2008. Chewing lice (phthiraptera) on chickens (Gallus gallus) from small backyard

flocks in the Eastern part of Czech Republic. Vet. Parasitol. 152, 344-348

Ugochukwu, E., Omije, F.A., 1986. Ectoparasitic fauna of poultry in Nsukka. Inter. J. Zoonos. 13,93-7

Macfie, J.W.S., Johnson, J.E.L., 1914. A note on occurrence of spirochaaetosis in fowls in Southern Nigeria. Annal.

Trop. Med. Parasitol. 8, 41-45.

Soulsby, E.J.L., 1982. Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th Edn. Society and Bailliere

Tindall. London, 378-384.

Yagi, A.I, Razig, A., Mohd, E., 1963. Preliminary tests with residual sprays against poultry lice. Sudan J. Vet. Sci. 13,

-43.

Walker, A., 1994. The Arthropods of Humans and Animals. A Guide to Preliminary Identification. Centre for

Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh. UK.

Published

2012-10-27

How to Cite

Usman, M. ., P. Fabiyi, J., A. Mohammed, A., M. Mera, U., Mahmuda, A. ., O. Alayande, M., D. Lawal, M., & Danmaigoro, A. . (2012). Ectoparasites and haemoparasites of chickens in sokoto, northwestern Nigeria. Scientific Journal of Zoology, 1(3), 74-78. Retrieved from https://www.sjournals.com/index.php/sjz/article/view/1181

Issue

Section

Original Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)