Retrospective survey of spatio-temporal spread of avian influenza in and around Maiduguri, Borno state northeastern Nigeria


  • Y. A. Glaji Veterinary Council of Nigeria (VCN), Maitama, Abuja
  • M. A. Sadiq Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria
  • J. U. Umoh Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello Universty (ABU) Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria
  • M. A. Saulawa Veterinary Council of Nigeria (VCN), Maitama, Abuja
  • J. A. Nwanta Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria Nsuka (UNN), Enugu State Nigeria


Avian influenza, Maiduguri, Borno, Spatio-Temporal, Nigeria


Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) is a viral disease affecting the digestive, nervous and respiratory systems of all domestic and wild birds that is characterized by respiratory, reproductive, digestive and/or nervous signs with high morbidity and mortality. Following the first report of Avian Influenza (AI) in Nigeria in January 2006 and its subsequent confirmation in February 2006, this study was designed to Retrospectively Review the Spatio-Temporal spread of HPAI in and around Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Out breaks were recorded from six (6) farms within Maiduguri and its environs, the index case of AI in Maiduguri was noticed on the 11th November, 2006 and was reported on the 13th November, 2006. Subsequent transmission from the index case could have been through aerosol or contaminated dust in the direction of wind flow as occasioned by the prevailing harmattan period which coincides with the outbreak period between November 2006 and January 2007. An age-specific mortality rate of 33.7% was recorded among birds of age group 0- 30 weeks, while 53.1% among the age group 31-60 weeks and 44.1% was recorded among adult birds of unknown age group. It is recommended that there should be improved management practices, which  include strict enforcement of biosecurity measures to reduce human  and  fomite  contacts risks  that could  occur  without  observing or breach of  biosecurity  protocols. Improve litter and other poultry waste management, exclusion of other animal species on poultry farms, and institution biosecurity against risks from neighbourhood farms’ activities.


Abdu, P., Wakawa, A., Sa’Idu, L., Umoh, J., 2005. Avian influenza: A Review. Nigerian Vet. J., 26, 34-43.

Adene, D., Wakawa, A., Abdu, P., Lombin, L., Kazeem, H., Fatihu, M., Sa’idu, L., Joannis, T., Adeyefa, C., 2007. Clinico-pathological and susbandry features associated with the maiden diagnosis of avian influenza in Nigeria. Nigerian Vet. J., 27, 32-38.

Alexander, D.J., 2007a. An overview of the epidemiology of avian influenza. Vaccine 25, 5637-5644.

Alexander, D.J., 2007b. Summary of avian influenza activity in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australasia, 2002-2006. Avian dis., 51, 161-166.

Baba, S., 2006. Avian influenza and family poultry in Nigeria: potentials for rapid spread and continued presence of disease. INFPD Newsletter, 16, 4.

Boender, G.J., Hagenaars, T.J., Bouma, A., Nodelijk, G., Elbers, A.R., de Jong, M.C., Van Boven, M., 2007. Risk maps for the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in poultry. PLoS Computational Biol., 3, e71.

BSBLS, 2011. Map of Borno State, Nigeria. Borno State Bureau of Land and Survey, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria, 1.

Bulaga, L., Garber, L., Senne, D., Myers, T., Good, R., Wainwright, S., Trock, S., Suarez, D., 2003. Epidemiologic and surveillance studies on avian influenza in live-bird markets in New York and New Jersey, 2001. Avian dis., 47, 996-1001.

Busani, L., Valsecchi, M.G., Rossi, E., Toson, M., Ferrè, N., Pozza, M.D., Marangon, S., 2009. Risk factors for highly pathogenic H7N1 avian influenza virus infection in poultry during the 1999–2000 epidemic in Italy. Vet. J., 181, 171-177.

Cattoli, G., Monne, I., Fusaro, A., Joannis, T.M., Lombin, L.H., Aly, M.M., Arafa, A.S., Sturm-Ramirez, K.M., Couacy-Hymann, E., Awuni, J.A., 2009. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Africa: a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization of isolates. PloS one 4, e4842.

Cecchi, G., Ilemobade, A., Le Brun, Y., Hogerwerf, L., Slingenbergh, J., 2008. Agro-ecological features of the introduction and spread of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in northern Nigeria. Geospatial Health, 3, 7-16.

Chen, H., Smith, G., Li, K., Wang, J., Fan, X., Rayner, J., Vijaykrishna, D., Zhang, J., Zhang, L., Guo, C., 2006. Establishment of multiple sublineages of H5N1 influenza virus in Asia: implications for pandemic control. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103, 2845-2850.

Chen, H., Smith, G., Zhang, S., Qin, K., Wang, J., Li, K., Webster, R., Peiris, J., Guan, Y., 2005. Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature, 436, 191-192.

Claas, E.C., Osterhaus, A.D., van Beek, R., De Jong, J.C., Rimmelzwaan, G.F., Senne, D.A., Krauss, S., Shortridge, K.F., Webster, R.G., 1998. Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. The Lancet., 351, 472-477.

Cox, N., Subbarao, K., 2000. Global epidemiology of influenza: past and present. Ann. Rev. Med., 51, 407-421.

De Jong, M.D., Hien, T.T., 2006. Avian influenza A (H5N1). J. Clin. Virol., 35, 2-13.

Ducatez, M., Olinger, C., Owoade, A., Tarnagda, Z., Tahita, M., Sow, A., De Landtsheer, S., Ammerlaan, W., Ouedraogo, J., Osterhaus, A., 2007. Molecular and antigenic evolution and geographical spread of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza viruses in western Africa. J. Gen. virol., 88, 2297-2306.

FAO, 2011 Approaches to controlling, preventing and eliminating H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in endemic countries. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO): Animal Production and Health Paper FAO Rome No. 171.

Fouchier, R.A., Munster, V., Wallensten, A., Bestebroer, T.M., Herfst, S., Smith, D., Rimmelzwaan, G.F., Olsen, B., Osterhaus, A.D., 2005. Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls. J. Virol., 79, 2814-2822.

Fusaro, A., Joannis, T., Monne, I., Salviato, A., Yakubu, B., Meseko, C., Oladokun, T., Fassina, S., Capua, I., Cattoli, G., 2009. Introduction into Nigeria of a distinct genotype of avian influenza virus (H5N1). Emerg. Infec. Dis., 15, 445.

Koch, G., Elbers, A.R., 2006. Outdoor ranging of poultry: a major risk factor for the introduction and development of High-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza. NJAS-Wageningen J. Life Sci., 54, 179-194.

Koopmans, M., Wilbrink, B., Conyn, M., Natrop, G., Van der Nat, H., Vennema, H., Meijer, A., van Steenbergen, J., Fouchier, R., Osterhaus, A., 2004. Transmission of H7N7 avian influenza A virus to human beings during a large outbreak in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands. The Lancet., 363, 587-593.

Li, K., Guan, Y., Wang, J., Smith, G., Xu, K., Duan, L., Rahardjo, A., Puthavathana, P., Buranathai, C., Nguyen, T., 2004. Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia. Nature, 430, 209-213.

Monne, I., Joannis, T.M., Fusaro, A., De Benedictis, P., Lombin, L.H., Ularamu, H., Egbuji, A., Solomon, P., Obi, T.U., Cattoli, G., 2008. Reassortant avian influenza virus (H5N1) in poultry, Nigeria, 2007. Emerg. Infec. Dis., 14, 637.

Morris, R., Jackson, R., Stevenson, M., Benard, J., Cogger, N., 2005. Epidemiology of H5N1 avian influenza in Asia and implications for regional control. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 254.

O.I.E., 2012. "World Organization for Animal Heath OIE: Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals 2012," World Organization for Animal Heath OIE, Paris, France.

Otake, S., Dee, S., Corzo, C., Oliveira, S., Deen, J., 2010. Long-distance airborne transport of infectious PRRSV and< i> Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from a swine population infected with multiple viral variants. Vet. Microb., 145, 198-208.

Peiris, J.M., De Jong, M.D., Guan, Y., 2007. Avian influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health. Clin. Microb. Rev., 20, 243-267.

Poland, G.A., Jacobson, R.M., Targonski, P.V., 2007. Avian and pandemic influenza: an overview. Vaccine, 25, 3057-3061.

Shortridge, K.F., Zhou, N.N., Guan, Y., Gao, P., Ito, T., Kawaoka, Y., Kodihalli, S., Krauss, S., Markwell, D., Murti, K.G., 1998. Characterization of avian H5N1 influenza viruses from poultry in Hong Kong. Virol., 252, 331-342.

Ssematimba, A., Hagenaars, T., de Wit, J., Ruiterkamp, F., Fabri, T., Stegeman, J., de Jong, M., 2012. Avian influenza transmission risks: analysis of biosecurity measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming. Preven. Vet. Med.

Swayne, D., Suarez, D., 2000. Highly pathogenic avian influenza. Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics) 19, 463.

Swayne, D.E., 2009. "Avian influenza," Wiley-Blackwell.

Thomas, J.K., Noppenberger, J., 2007. Avian influenza: A Review. Amer. J. Health-System pharm., 64, 149-165.

Tsukamoto, K., 2006. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza. J. Livest. Med., 305-309.



How to Cite

A. Glaji, Y., A. Sadiq, M., U. Umoh, J., A. Saulawa, M., & A. Nwanta, J. (2013). Retrospective survey of spatio-temporal spread of avian influenza in and around Maiduguri, Borno state northeastern Nigeria. Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances, 2(7), 101-109. Retrieved from



Original Article