Seroprevalence of Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale in domestic animals of district Ganderbal
Keywords:Seroprevalence, ELISA, Babesia, Smear, TBDs
The present study of seroprevalence of B. bigemina and A. marginale in cattle, sheep and goats was studied in Ganderbal district of Kashmir, between January to December 2012. A total of 153 blood samples were collected randomly from 40 cattle, 52 sheep and 61 goats for the preparation of blood smears and serum samples in four consecutive seasons and tested against B. bigemina and A. marginale using the SVANOVIR® B. bigemina-Abs and A. marginale-Abs ELISA Kit. Samples were also examined by Giemsa's stained blood smear method. The effect of topography, season, age, gender and breed was observed in cattle during this study. The overall prevalence of B. bigemina infection was 3 (7.5%), 2 (3.84%) and 3 (4.91%) in cattle, sheep and goats and for A. marginale 2 (5%), 1 (1.92%) and1 (1.63%) respectively. The mixed infections between B. bigemina and A. marginale were 5% in cattle, 1.92% in sheep and 3.27% in goats. The seasonal prevalence of B.bigemina, A. marginale and mixed infection between them peaked in summer as revealed by blood smear examination and ELISA.
Afridi, Z.K., Ahmad, I., Khattak, G.Z., Habib ullah, Q., Jamil, M., 2005. Incidence of anaplasmosis, babesiosis and theileriosis in dairy cattle in Peshawar. Sarhad. J. Agr., 21(3), 311-316.
Ahmad, N., Hashmi, H.A., 2007. A comparative study on the incidence of ticks and ticks borne diseases on local and crossbred cattle in Malakand Agency. J. Anim. Pl. Sci., 17(3-4), 56-58.
Ananda, K.J., D’Souza, P.E., Puttalakshmamma, G.C., 2009. Prevalence of Haemoprotozoan diseases in crossbred cattle in Bangalore north. Vet. World., 2(1), 15-16.
EFSA (European Food Safety Author ity), 2010. Scientific opinion on geographic distribution of Tick-borne infections and their vectors in Europe and the other regions of the Mediterranean Basin1, EFSA. J., 8(9), 1723.
Ellis, J.T., Morrison, D.A., Reichel, M.P., 2003. Genomics and its impact on parasitology and the potential for development of new parasite control methods. DNA. Cell. Biol., 32, 395-403.
Gubbels, J.M., Devos, M.A.P., Van Der Weide, J., Viseras, L.M., Schouls, E., Devries, Jongejan, F., 1999. Simultaneous detection of bovine Theileria and Babesia species by reverse line blot hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol., 1782-1789.
Hunfeld, K., Hildebrandt, P., Gray, J.S., 2008. Babesiosis: Recent insights into an ancient disease. Int. J. Para., 38(11), 1219-1237.
Jithendran, K.P., 1997. Blood protista of cattle and buffaloes in Kangra Valley, Himachal Pradesh. India. J. Anim. Sci., 67, 207-208.
Kivaria, F.M., 2006. Estimated direct economic costs associated with tick-borne diseases on cattle in Tanzania. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod., 38, 291-299.
Knowles, D.P., Torioni de Echaide, S., Palmer, G.H., McGuire, T.C., Stille, D., McElwain, T.F., 1996. Antibody against an Anaplasma marginale MSP5 epitope common to tick and erythrocyte stages identified persistently infected cattle. J. Clin. Microbiol., 34, 2225–2230.
Kocan, K.M., Blouin, E.F., Barbet, A.F., 2000. Anaplasmosis control. Past, present, and future, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 916, 501-509.
Kursat, A., Nazir, D., Patricia, J., Holman, B., Munir, A., 2004. Detection of Theileria ovis in naturally infected sheep by nested PCR. Vet. Parasitol., 127, 99-104.
Magona, J.W., Walubengo, J., Olaho-Mukani, W., Jonsson, N.N., Welburn, S.W., Eisler, M.C., 2011. Spatial variation of tick abundance and seroconversion rates of indigenous cattle to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Therileria parva infections in Uganda. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 55, 203-213.
OIE, 2004. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. Bovine babesiosis. Paris, France.
OIE, 2008a. Terrestrial Manual, Bovine anaplasmosis. Paris, France.
OIE, 2008b. Terrestrial Manual, Theileriosis. Paris, France.
Oura, C.A.L., Asiimwe, B.B., Weir, W., Lubega, G.W., Tait, A., 2005. Population genetic analysis and substructuring of Theileria parva in Uganda. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol., 140, 229-239.
Palmer, G.H., Brown, W.C., Rurangirwa, F.R., 2000. Antigenic variation in the persistence and transmission of the ehrlichia, Anaplasma marginale. Microb. Infect., 2, 167-17.
Radostits, O.M., Blood, D.C., Gay, C.C., 2000. Veterinary Medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats ad horses. 9th Ed. W.B. Saunders Co. Ltd. London, 1289-1296.
Rajput, Z.I., Song-hua, H.U., Arijo, A.G., Habib, M., Khalid, M., 2005. Comparative study of Anaplasma parasites in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle. J. Zhejiang. Univ. Sci. B., 6(11), 1057-1062.
Saud, N., Sheikh, I.U., Pourouchottamane, R., Bhattacharya, M., 2004. Babesiosis in yak-A case report. India. J. Vet. Med., 24, 118.
Schnittger, L., Yin, H., Qi, B., Gubbels, M.J., Beyer, D., Niemann, S., Jongejan, F., Ahmed, J.S., 2004. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Theileria and Babesia parasites infecting small ruminants by reverseline blotting. Parasitol. Res., 92, 189–196.
Sharma, A.K., Katoch, R.C., Nagal, K.B., Kishtwaria, R.S., Sharma, S.K., 2000. Bovine babesiosis in Palam Valley of Himachal Pradesh. India. Vet. J., 77, 731-732.
Shaw, A.A., 1989. Investigation on some infections in the exotic, pure and cross bred cattle of Kashmir valley. India. J. Compar. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. Dise., 10, 33-38.
Singh, N.K., Singh, H., Jyoti, Haque, M., Rath, S.S., 2012. Prevalence of parasitic infections in cattle of Ludhiana district, Punjab. J. Parasit. Dis., 36(2), 256-259.
Tufani, N.A., Hafiz, A., Malik, H.U., Peer, F.U., Makhdoomi, D.M., 2009. Clinico-therapeutic management of acute babesiosis in bovine. Intas Polivet., 10(1), 49-50.
Uilenberg, G., 1995. International collaborative research: significance of tick-borne hemoparasitic diseases on world animal health. Vet. Parasitol., 57, 19–41.
Uilenberg, G., 2006. Babesia – a historical review. Vet. Para., 138, 3–10.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Shakeel Ahmad Rather, Hidayatullah Tak, Dalip K. Kakru
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.