Psychophysiological assessment of disability in male mice
Keywords:Disability, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Memory, Learning
Amputation is considered as a defect and its outcome is person's disability and the incidences of psychological problems. This study examined psychophysiological of disability in male mice with amputed limb. This experimental study was conducted on 30 male mice were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 animals each: two intact control groups (NC), two groups that their right hands (RH) amputed from elbow joint and two other groups that their right feet (RF) amputed from knee joint. Behavioral tests were performed in each group either after 30 or 60 days after amputation. To investigate the behavior paradigms, we used of forced swimming test for depression, elevated plus maze for anxiety, tail pinch test for stress, Morris water maze for spatial memory and object recognition test for learning. This study demonstrated that the immobility time in FST was RF group on day 30 significant increased compared to NC group on day 60. The open arms entries in EPM were significant decrease in RH and RF groups on days 30 and 60 compared to NC group on day 60. The time in closed arms in EPM was RF group on day 60 significant increased compared to NC group on day 30. RH and RF groups on days 30 and 60 significant increased in this parameter when compared to NC group on day 60. The time in open arms in EPM was significant different in NC group on day 30 as compared to NC group on day 60. RH and RF groups on days 30 and 60 significant decrease compared to NC group on day 60. To sum, limb amputation increased anxious behavior. The trend of working memory in ORT was deteriorated following limb amputation. The response to stress stimulus in TPT was increased post-amputation (P>0.05). The spatial memory in MWM also showed moderate deficit following amputation. Results from present study indicated that amputation can created some psychophysiological disorders. Major reason for which is probably animal's motor behavior defects, although further studies need to be done on peripheral and central effects of lower sensomotor deprivation while observing ethicl rules.
Abeyasinghe, N.L., Dezoysa, P., Bandara, K.M., et¬¬¬ al., 2012. The prevalence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among soldiers with amputatiom of a limb or spinal injury: a report from a rehabilitation center in Sri Lanka. Psycho Helth Med., 17(3), 376-81.
Ascherio, A., Biellik, R., Epstein, A., et al., 1995. Deaths and injuries caused by land mines in Mozambique. Lancet., 16(346), 721-724.
Aslankhani, M., Abdoli, B., Zamani Saani, S.H., et al., 2009. Emotional intelligence among athletes. Iranian Psycholog. Quarterly., 6(21), 15-24.
Brenes, G.A., Guralink, J.M., wiliamson, J.D., et al., 2005. The influence of anxiety on the progression of disability. J. Am. Ger. Soc., 53(1), 34-39.
Copuroqlu, C., Ozcan, M., Yilmaz, B., et al., 2010. Acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder following traumatic amputation. Acta. Orthop Belg., 76(1), 90-3.
Desmond, D.M., 2007. Coping affective distress and psychosocial adjustment among people with traumatic upper limb amputations. J. Psychosom. Res., 62(1), 15-21.
Esquenazi, A., 2000. Upper limb amputee rehabilitation and prosthetic restoration. In: Braddom RL. Physical medicine & rehabilitation. 2nd ed, USA: WB Saunders Company.
Farahaninia, M., Maleki, M., Kheiri, F., et al., 2012. Factors related to life quality of disabled people with lower limb amputation. Publication of Nursing Care Research Center of Tehran. Med. Sci. Uni., 25(75), 32-44.
Hawamdeh, Z.M., Othman, Y.S., Ibrahim, A.L., 2008. Assessment of anxiety and depression after lower limb amputation in Jordanian patients. Neuopsychiatric Disease and Treatment., 4(3), 627-633.
Joghtaie, M.T., Kazem, M., Rahgozar, M., Siyadati, S., 2002. Study of status of any kinds of paralysis and amputation in Iran. Rehabil. Magaz.,8-9, 7-16.
Khademi, M.J., Gharib, M., Rashedi, V., 2011. Depression prevalence among amputated patients and its relationship with demographic variables. Sci. Res. Magaz.Dev. Med., 4(14), 12-17.
Leger, E., Ladouceur, R., Freeston, M.H., 2002. Anxiety and physical limitation: a complex relation. Encephale., 28(3), 205-9.
Masoumi, M., Soroush, M.R., Modiriyan, E., 2008. Evalution of psychiatric problems among devotees with bilateral amputation of upper limb. Mil. Med. Magaz., 3(10), 185-192.
Moradi, A., salami, M., Fathi Ashtiyani, A., 2010. Memory function of patients with stress disorder after war-induced incidents. Behav. Sci. Magaz., 4(4), 269-276.
Mosaku, K.S., A Kinyoola, A.L., Fatoye, F.E., et al., 2009. Psychological reactions to amputation in sample of nigerian amputees. General Hosp. Psych., 31(1), 20-24.
Mousavi, S.C.h., Barati, M., Afshar, H.R., et al., 2004. Comparison of effects of clonidine and prazosin on nightmares of stress after war accident. 2 Sci. Res. Med. Scholar Monthly Period. Shahed Uni., 14(53), 31-36.
Pardon, M.C., Diaz, F.P., Joubert, C., et al., 2000. Age-dependent effects of a chronic ultramild stress procedure on open-field behaviuor in B6D2F1 femal mice. Physiol. Behav., 70, 7-13.
SoleimaniDinani, M., Dehkordi, A., KakuJoibari, A.A., et al., 2010. Effects of training immunization against psychological pressuer on increased self-expression among high school female physico-motor disabled students from Isfahan city in 2010. Q. Except. People Psychol., 1(4), 74-89.
Stalnacke, B.M., 2011. Life satisfaction in patients with chronic pain relation to pain intensity disability and psychological factors. Dov. J. Neuropsychiatr Dis. Treat., 7(1), 683-689.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2014 Maryam Mohammadi, Isaac Karimi, Ali Ghashghaii
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.