Assessing Nigeria’s progress toward monitoring and measuring of forest carbon in the context of REDD+
Keywords:UNFCCC, MRV, REDD , Nigeria, IPCC
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries is considered an efficient and lowest-cost measure to mitigate climate change. Organizations like The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), helps resolve essential challenges like availability/use of technology, administration, human capacity and low capacity to measure and quantify national forest carbon emission reductions from Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). This study assessed Nigeria’s progress in implementing the requirements for monitoring and quantifying forest carbon stock in the context of REDD+. This study was through a case study research where national and international REDD+ documents on MRV were reviewed and analyzed. The results showed that Nigeria had an average ranking score for the establishment of administrative/institutional capacity; however, they ranked low both in its ability to acquire and make available essential technical tools/methods; and in the adoption of REDD+ ethical governance principles. This study shows that the nation had made considerable efforts in establishing administrative/institutional capacity even though unable to acquire relevant technological methods/capacities, competence, expertise, and incorporate REDD+ good governance practice in MRV implementation. Findings of this study shows that high-order technical methods (e.g., remote-sensing and satellite land monitoring system-SLMS) are not freely available due to lack of financial capacity to acquire these tools. This study also reveals that there is low collaboration with communities and other key actors/stakeholders in the REDD+ MRV process. This study suggests that international organizations should lend support through the transfer and provision of technical tools/methods relevant for MRV, and this should be supplemented with training to develop vital capacity/skills for MRV. Also, Nigerian REDD+ administrative institution should encourage active inclusion and participation of all stakeholders, particularly, the local communities in its MRV implementation; their involvement will not only improve the monitoring and measurement of forest carbon stocks but will help in early identification of potential threats to the success and sustainability of the program.
Asiyanbi, A.P., 2016. A political ecology of REDD+: Property rights, militarised protectionism, and carbonized exclusion in Cross River. Geoforum, 77, 146-56.
Asiyanbi, A.P., Arhin, A.A., Isyaku, U., 2017. REDD+ in West Africa: Politics of design and implementation in Ghana and Nigeria. Forest., 8(3), 1-24.
Asiyanbi, A.P., Ogar, E., Akintoye, O.A., 2019. Complexities and surprises in local resistance to neoliberal conservation: Multiple environmentalists, technologies of the self and the poststructural geography of local engagement with REDD+. Polit. Geogr., 69, 128-138.
Austin, K., Cheung, L., Stolle, F., 2012. A seven-country assessment of national capacities to track forest carbon dioxide emissions and removals. Issue brief. World Resources Institute, Washington DC.
Bernard, F., Minang, P.A., Adkins, B., Freund, J.T., 2014. REDD+ projects and national-level Readiness processes: A case study from Kenya. Clim. Pol., 14(6), 788-800.
Biermann, F., Gupta, A., 2011. Accountability and legitimacy in earth system governance: A research framework. Ecol. Econ., 70(11), 1856-1864.
Bucki, M., Cuypers, D., Mayaux, P., Achard, F., Estreguil, C., Grassi, G., 2012. Assessing REDD+ performance of countries with low monitoring capacities: the matrix approach. Environ. Res. Lett., 7(1), 014031.
Dube, L.C., 2019. Conserving carbon and biodiversity through REDD+ implementation in tropical countries. Climate Change, Food Security and Natural Resource Management, Springer, 281-297.
FGN, 2013. Nigeria REDD+ Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) submitted to Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) and the United Nations collaborative program on reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (UN-REDD).
FGN, 2018. Forest Reference Emission Levels (FRELs) for the Federal Republic of Nigeria: A Jurisdictional Approach focused on Cross River State, Federal Department of Forestry, Federal Ministry of Environment, Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.
FGN, 2019. National Forest Reference Emission Level (FREL), Federal Department of Forestry, Federal Ministry of Environment, Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.
Fitzgerald, L., 1999. Case studies as a research tool. Qual Health Care, 8(2), 75.
George, A.L., Bennett, A., 2005. Case studies and theory development in the social sciences. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
Gerring, J., 2004. What is a case study and what is it good for? APSR, 98(2), 341-354.
Gibbs, H.K., Brown, S., Niles, J.O., Foley, J.A., 2007. Monitoring and estimating tropical forest carbon stocks: making redd a reality. Environ. Res. Lett., 2(4), 045023.
Gizachew, B., Duguma, L., 2016. Forest carbon monitoring and reporting for REDD+: What future for Africa? Environ. Manag., 58(5), 922-930.
Herold, M., 2009. An assessment of national forest monitoring capabilities in tropical non-Annex I countries: Recommendations for capacity building.
Keohane, R.O., 1993. The effectiveness of international environmental institutions. In Haas, P.M., Keohane, R.O., Levy, M.A., Gasser, L. (eds), Institutions for the earth: sources of effective international environmental protection. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 3-24.
Korhonen-Kurki, K., Brockhaus, M., Duchelle, A.E., Atmadja, S., Thuy, P.T., Schofield, L., 2013. Multiple levels and multiple challenges for measurement, reporting, and verification of REDD+. Int. J. Common., 7(2), 344-366.
Maniatis, D., Todd, K., Scriven, J., Guay, B., Hugel, B., Laughlin, J., Pesti, B., Shah, W., 2016. Towards a common understanding of REDD+ under the UNFCCC: A UN-REDD Programme document to foster a common approach of REDD+ implementation.
May, P.H., Millikan, B., Gebara, M.F., 2010. The context of REDD+ in Brazil: drivers, agents, and institutions. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). Vol 55.
Nuesiri, E., 2016. Local government authority and representation in REDD+: A case study from Nigeria. Int. Forest. Rev., 18(3), 306-318.
Nuesiri, E., 2017. Feigning democracy: Performing representation in the UN-REDD funded Nigeria-REDD programme. Conservat. Soc., 15(4), 384-399.
Nuesiri, E.O., 2018b. Godfather politics and exclusionary local representation in REDD+: A case study of the design of the UN-REDD-Supervised Nigeria-REDD proposal. Global Forest Governance and Climate Change, Springer, 17-49.
Ochieng, R., Art, B., Visseren-Hamakers, I., Brockhaus, M., Herold, M., 2015. Influence of REDD+ MRV rules on institutional arrangements for forest measurements in developing countries: insights from Peru. Proceedings of the XIV World Forestry Congress. FAO, Durban, South Africa.
Ochieng, R.M., Visseren-Hamakers, I.J., Arts, B., Brockhaus, M., Herold, M., 2016. Institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV: Countries progress in implementing technical guidelines and good governance requirements. Environ. Sci. Pol., 61(C), 42-52.
Oyebo, M., Bisong, F., Morakinyo, T., 2010. A preliminary assessment of the context for REDD in Nigeria. Nigeria: Federal Ministry of Environment, the Cross River State's Forestry Commission and UNDP Nigeria.
Pratihast, A.K., Herold, M., Avitabile, V., de Bruin, S., Bartholomeus, H., Souza, C.M., Ribbe, L., 2012. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 13(1), 21-38.
Pratihast, A.K., Herold, M., De Sy, V., Murdiyarso, D., Skutsch, M., 2013. Linking community-based and national REDD+ monitoring: A review of the potential. Carbon Manag., 4(1), 91-104.
Romijn, E., Herold, M., Kooistra, L., Murdiyarso, D., Verchot, L., 2012. Assessing capacities of non-Annex 1 countries for national forest monitoring in the context of REDD+. Assessing capacities of non-Annex I countries for national forest monitoring in the context of REDD+, 19, 33-48.
Rosa da Conceição, H., Börner, J., Wunder, S., 2018. REDD+ as a public policy dilemma: Understanding conflict and cooperation in the design of conservation incentives. Forest., 9(11), 725.
Saket, M., Branthomme, A., Piazza, M., 2010. FAO NFMA-support to developing countries on national forest monitoring and assessment. National forest inventories-pathways for common reporting. Edited by Springer, 583-594.
UNFCCC, 2007. Decision 2/CP. 13: Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries: Approaches to stimulate action. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Bonn, Germany.
UNFCCC, 2009. Decision 4/CP.15. Methodological guidance for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Bonn.
UNFCCC, 2010. Decision 1/CP.16. Cancun Agreements, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Bonn.
UNFCCC, 2014a. Report of the conference of the parties on its nineteenth session held in Warsaw from 11 to 23 November 2013, Bonn.
UN-REDD, 2015. UN collaborative program on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries national program document: Nigeria REDD+ Readiness Programme 2012 -2015, Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Williams, L.G., 2013. Putting the pieces together for good governance of REDD+: An analysis of 32 REDD+ country readiness proposals. World Resources Institute (WRI), Washington DC, USA.
Wulder, M.A., Coops, N.C., 2014. Satellites: Make earth observations open access. Nat. New., 513(7516), 30.
Yin, R.K., 2009. Case study research: design and methods. 4th ed, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.
Young, O.R., Levy, M.A., 1999. The effectiveness of international environmental regimes, In Young, O.R. (ed.), The effectiveness of international environmental regimes: causal connections and behavioral mechanisms. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1-32.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Olaniyan Udeme Olayinka, Dargusch Paul, Ekom Ndifreke Edem
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.