Evidence of merkel cell carcinoma polyomavirus in prostate cancer tissue using nested PCR assay
Keywords:Polyomavirus; PCR; Prostate; Cancer; MCV; KIV
Prostate cancer, the most common cancer among men in United Kingdom, is considered to be a multifactorial disease. The role of infectious agents, particularly viruses, in prostate cancer development is a controversial issue. Polyomaviruses are world distributed DNA viruses which are suspected to induce malignancies in human. They have been identified in several types of human cancers such as prostate carcinomas. This study was performed to investigate presence of Merkel cell carcinoma polyomavirus (MCV) and Karolinska Institute polyomavirus (KIV) in prostate cancer tissues. Nested PCR was used in order to detect MCV and KIV conserved DNA sequences in total 23 purified genomic DNA samples from human prostate cancer tissues. The presence of MCV DNA was shown in 26% (6 out of total 23) of our samples while KIV DNA was undetectable in our nested PCR assay. These findings suggest MCV infection can occur in prostate tissue. However, further in-depth investigations of MCV gene expression and protein localization in prostate cancer cells are required to inspect probable association of this virus in prostate cancer development. In addition, larger scale studies shall be performed in order to investigate association of KIV in prostate cancer in more depth.
Abend, J.R., Jiang, M., Imperiale, M.J., 2009. BK virus and human cancer: innocent until proven guilty. Semin. Cancer. Biol., 19(4), 252-260.
Allander, T., Andreasson, K., Gupta, S., Bjerkner, A., Bogdanovic, G., Persson, M.A., Dalianis, T., Ramqvist, T., Andersson, B., 2007. Identification of a third human polyomavirus. J. Virol., 81(8), 4130-4136.
American Cancer Society., 2013. Cancer Facts & Figures 2013. Amer.Canc. Soc., Atlanta.
Andres, C., Belloni, B., Puchta, U., Sander, C.A., Flaig, M.J., 2010. Prevalence of MCPyV in Merkel cell carcinoma and non-MCC tumors. J. Cutan. Pathol., 37(1), 28-34.
Antonsson, A., Bialasiewicz, S., Rockett, R.J., Jacob, K., Bennett, I.C., Sloots, T.P., 2012. Exploring the prevalence of ten polyomaviruses and two herpes viruses in breast cancer. PLoS One., 7(8), e39842.
Babakir-Mina, M., Ciccozzi, M., Campitelli, L., Aquaro, S., Lo Coco, A., Perno, C.F., Ciotti, M., 2009. Identification of the novel KI Polyomavirus in paranasal and lung tissues. J. Med. Virol., 81(3), 558-561.
Barbanti-Brodano, G., Sabbioni, S., Martini, F., Negrini, M., Corallini, A., Tognon, M., 2004. Simian virus 40 infection in humans and association with human diseases: results and hypotheses. Virol., 318(1), 1-9.
Bergallo, M., Terlizzi, M.E., Astegiano, S., Ciotti, M., Babakir-Mina, M., Perno, C.F., Cavallo, R., Costa, C., 2009. Real time PCR TaqMan assays for detection of polyomaviruses KIV and WUV in clinical samples. J. Virol. Method., 162(1-2), 69-74.
Bluemn, E.G., Paulson, K.G., Higgins, E.E., Sun, Y., Nghiem, P., Nelson, P.S., 2009. Merkel cell polyomavirus is not detected in prostate cancers, surrounding stroma, or benign prostate controls. J. Clin. Virol., 44(2), 164-166.
Chang, Y., Moore, P.S., 2012. Merkel cell carcinoma: a virus-induced human cancer. Annu. Rev. Pathol., 7, 123-144.
Dalianis, T., Hirsch, H.H., 2013. Human polyomaviruses in disease and cancer. Virol., 437(2), 63-72.
Dalianis, T., Ramqvist, T., Andreasson, K., Kean, J.M., Garcea, R.L., 2009. KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomaviruses: a new era for human polyomavirus research. Semin. Cancer. Biol., 19(4), 270-275.
Feltkamp, M.C., Kazem, S., van der Meijden, E., Lauber, C., Gorbalenya, A.E., 2013. From Stockholm to Malawi: recent developments in studying human polyomaviruses. J. Gen. Virol., 94(Pt 3), 482-496.
Feng, H., Shuda, M., Chang, Y., Moore, P.S., 2008. Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. Sci., 319(5866), 1096-1100.
Giraud, G., Ramqvist, T., Pastrana, D.V., Pavot, V., Lindau, C., Kogner, P., Orrego, A., Buck, C.B., Allander, T., Holm, S., Gustavsson, B., Dalianis, T., 2009. DNA from KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomaviruses is not detected in childhood central nervous system tumours or neuroblastomas. PLoS One., 4(12), e8239.
Giraud, G., Ramqvist, T., Ragnarsson-Olding, B., Dalianis, T., 2008. DNA from BK virus and JC virus and from KI, WU, and MC polyomaviruses as well as from simian virus 40 is not detected in non-UV-light-associated primary malignant melanomas of mucous membranes. J. Clin. Microbiol., 46(11), 3595-3598.
Groom, H.C., Warren, A.Y., Neal, D.E., Bishop, K.N., 2012. No evidence for infection of UK prostate cancer patients with XMRV, BK virus, Trichomonas vaginalis or human papilloma viruses. PLoS One., 7(3), e34221.
Jiang, M., Abend, J.R., Johnson, S.F., Imperiale, M.J., 2009. The role of polyomaviruses in human disease. Virol., 384(2), 266-273.
Johnson, E.M., 2010. Structural evaluation of new human polyomaviruses provides clues to pathobiology. Trends Microbiol., 18(5), 215-223.
Krumbholz, A., Bininda-Emonds, O.R., Wutzler, P., Zell, R., 2009. Phylogenetics, evolution, and medical importance of polyomaviruses. Infect. Genet. Evol., 9(5), 784-799.
Kumar, V., Abbas, A., Fausto, M., Aster, J., eds., 2010. Robbins and Cotran's pathologic basis of disease, eighth ed. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia.
Robaina, T.F., Mendes, G.S., Benati, F.J., Pena, G.A., Silva, R.C., Montes, M.A., Janini, M.E., Camara, F.p., Santos, N., 2013. Shedding of polyomavirus in the saliva of immunocompetent individuals. J. Med. Virol., 85(1), 144-148.
White, M.K., Gordon, J., Khalili, K., 2013. The rapidly expanding family of human polyomaviruses: recent developments in understanding their life cycle and role in human pathology. PLoS Pathog., 9(3), e1003206.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2014 Sina Arabshahi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.