Molecular detection of PVL, msrA genes and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft tissue infections in Zaria, Nigeria
Keywords:Staphylococcus aureus, SSTIs, Vancomycin, PVL, CA-MRSA, Zaria
Skin and soft tissue infections are infections involving the non-skeletal tissues i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The aim of this research was to isolate, determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and detect molecularly, PVL and msrA genes from Staphylococcus aureus isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in Zaria. Four hundred skin and soft tissue (SSTI) specimens were collected from some hospitals in Zaria and screened for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. The male-to-female ratio of patients with SSTIs was approximately 2:1 (62.30% in male and 37.70% in female). The highest frequency of 30% was observed in the 51-60 years age group. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done on the isolates using Kirby Bauer’s Disc Diffusion Technique and it was found that the highest level of resistance of S. aureus was recorded in Ceftazidime (49.28%), followed by Chloramphenicol (28.99%), Cefoxitin (27.54%), Oxacillin (26.09%) and Linezolid (7.25%). All isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin. Molecular assay was carried out on 25 selected isolates using Panton Valentine Leukocidine (PVL which codes for Community Acquired MRSA) and macrolide efflux resistance determinant (msrA, since Hospital Acquired MRSA shows high resistance to macrolides) as gene markers. PCR amplification showed 4 positive isolates (16%) for PVL genes and 7 positive isolates (28%) for msrA. There was high rate of antibiotic resistance. Vancomycin is the drug of choice while Linezolid can be considered in its absence. There was higher prevalence in HA-MRSA than CA-MRSA. Both strains showed multi-drug resistance to antibiotics. There is need for strict antibiotic policy, continuous monitoring of antibiotic susceptibility pattern of all S. aureus and observation of infection control measures to curtail the evolution of these resistant strains. Further molecular study on S. aureus SSTIs and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus epidemiology in future is desirable.
Besier, S., Ludwig, A., Zander, J., Brade, V., Wichelhaus, T.A., 2008. Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus:
Gene Dosage Effect, Stability, Fitness Costs, and Cross-Resistances. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy;
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention 2003. Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care
Facilities. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee
(HICPAC). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; 52(RR10), 1-42.
Clinical Laboratory Standards and Institute 2009. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing,
th informational supplement. M100-S16 Wayne, Pa.
Fayomi, O.D., Oyediran, E.I.O., Adeyemi, A.T., Oyekale, O.T., 2011. Prevalence And Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of
Methicillin-Resistance Staphylococcus Aureus among In- Patients at a Tertiary Health Facility in Ido-Ekiti,
Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 4(2)
Ghebremedhin, B., Olugbosi, M.O., Raji, A.M., Layer, F., Bakare, R.A., Konig, B., Konig, W., 2009. Emergence of a
Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Unique Resistance Profile in
Southwest of Nigeria. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 47, 2975-2980.
Harbarth, S., Dharan, S., Liassine, N., 1999. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double- Blind Trial to Evaluate the
Efficacy of Mupirocin for Eradicating Carriage of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial
Agents and Chemotherapy; 43, 1412–1416.
Ikeh, E.I., 2003. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus at Jos University Teaching Hospital. African Journal of
Clinical and Experimental Microbiology; 4(1), 52-55.
Lina, G., Piemont, Y., Godail-Gamot, F., Bes, M., Peter, M.O., Gauduchon, V., Vandenesch, F., andEtienne, J., 1999.
Involvement of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Producing Staphylococcus aureus in Primary Skin Infections and
Pneumonia. Clinical Infectious Diseases; 29, 1128-1132.
Lowy, F.D., 1998. Staphylococcus aureus Infection. New England Journal of Medicine. 339(8), 520-532.
Micek, S.T., 2007. Alternatives to Vancomycin for the Treatment of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases; 45, S184-190.
Nwankwo, E.O., Nasiru, M.S., 2011. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical isolates in a
tertiary health institution in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. The Pan African Medical Journal.8, 4. ISSN 1937-
Pallin, D.J., Egan, D.J., Pelletier, A.J., Espinola, J.A., Hooper, D.C., Camargo, C.A. Jr 2008. Increased US emergency
department visits for skin and soft tissue infections, and changes in antibiotic choices, during the emergence
of community-associated methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Annual Emergency Medicine;51,291-
Popovich, K.J., Weinstein, R.A., Hota, B., 2008. Are Community-Associated Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus
aureus (MRSA) Strains Replacing Traditional Nosocomial MRSA Strains? Clinical Infectious Diseases; 46, 787–
Singh, V.K., Moskovitz, J., Wilkinson, B.J., Jayaswal, R.K., 2001. Molecular Characterization of Chromosomal Locus
in Staphylococcus aureus that Contribute to Oxidative Defence and is Highly Induced by the Cell-Wall-Active
Antibiotic Oxacillin. Microbiology; 147(11), 3037-3045.
Shittu, A.O., Lin, J., 2006a. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns and Characterization of Clinical Isolates of
Staphylococcus aureus in Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa. BMC Infectious Disease. 6(1), 125
Shittu, A.O., Okon, K., Adesida, S., Oyedara, O., Witte, W., Stro mmenger, B., Layer, F., Nube, U., 2011. Antibiotic
Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus inNigeria. BMC Microbiology; 11, 92
Skiest, D.J., Brown, K., Cooper, T.W., 2007. Prospective Comparison of Methicillin- Susceptible and MethicillinResistant Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Hospitalized Patients. Journal of
Infections; 54, 427–434.
Stevens, D.L., Bisno, A.L., Chambers, H.F., Everett, E.D., Dellinger, P., Goldstein, E.J.C., 2005. Infectious Diseases
Society ofAmerica. Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections [published errata appear in Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:1830 and 2006;42:1219]. Clinical Infectious Disease; 41,
Templer, S.J., Brito, M.O., 2009. Bacterial Skin and Soft Tissue Infections. p p . 9 –16, 26. Hospital Physician.
Truong, H., Shah, S.S., Ludmir, J., Tawanana, E.O., Bafana, M., Wood, S.M., Moffat, H., teenhoff, A.P., 2011.
Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue infections at a tertiary hospital in Botswana. South African
Medical Journal; 101(6), 413-416.
Turnidge, J.D., Rao, N., Chang, F., Fowler, V.G. Jr, Kellie, S.M., Arnold, S., Lee, B.Y., Tristan, A.(2008).
Staphylococcus aureus. Updated December, 2008.
Udo, E.E., Al-Sweih, N., Noronha, B., 2006. Characterisation of Non-Multiresistant Methicillin-Resistant
Staphylococcusaureus (including EMRSA- 15) in Kuwait Hospitals. Clinical Microbiology Infections; 12, 262-
Winstead, Y., Emmerich, H., Manning, M.L., Winstead, D., Nelson-Bachmann, P., Kornecki, Z., 2010. Clinical
Management of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in the Emergency Department of a Suburban Hospital.
Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal; 32(2), 155-167.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2013 N.C. J. Anyanwu, I. O. Abdullahi, J. B. Ameh, E. E. Ella
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.