Presence of volatile organic compound (VOCs) in the atmosphere of Ilupeju industrial area, Lagos state, Southwestern - Nigeria


  • C. C. Ojiodu Department of Chemical Sciences, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba - Lagos, Nigeria
  • E. G. Olumayede Department of Chemical Sciences, Ondo - State University of Science and Technology, Ondo - State, Nigeria
  • T. R. Kuteyi Department of Chemical Sciences, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba - Lagos, Nigeria


Chromatography, Sampler, Concentration, Industrial, Meterological


Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate  matter or  biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to human or  other living  organisms. The atmosphere has always  served as a  disposal  area.  Air samples were collected by passive sampler  (ORSA  5). The air samplers were exposed  to a height  of  1.5  -  2.0 m and sampling was carried  out four times a month for a period of  12 months. The adsorbed VOCs were desorbed with carbondisulphide (CS2) and the solution  analysed using Gas Chromatography (Gc) fitted  with  Flame Ionization  Detector  (FID). The results from analysis of  the air  samples  showed that twenty - Six  (26) VOCs were  captured  in  the  Industrial area. The  VOCs in the industrial area were  classified thus: aromatics 43%,  halogenated 40%, esters 2%, ketones 6%, alcohols 5%,  ethers  4%. There  is a significant  difference (Pvalue <  0.05) between the levels of VOCs in  Ilupeju industrial area. The meteorological parameters showed  significant correlations  with  the  ambient  concentrations  of  VOCs. The principal  component analysis revealed that the major  sources  of  VOCs in the industrial  area are  mainly anthropogenic and Six  (6)  factors were identified  as sources  of  VOCs in  the studied  industrial areas with  industrial  emissions dominating.


Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2001. Interaction profile of Benzene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene and Xylenes (BTEX) (draft for public comments) Atlanta, Agency for toxic Substances and diseases Registry, U. S Dept. health human serv.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)., 1988. Method D 3686-84. Standard practice for sampling atmospheres to collect organic compound vapours, Annual Book of ASTM Standard., 3(11), 234 – 240.

Cetin, E., Odabasi, M., Seyfioglu, R., 2003. Ambient volatile organic compounds concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery. Sci. Total Env., 321, 103-112.

Chang C.C., Sree, U., Lin, Y.S., Lo, J.G., 2005. An examination of 7.00- 9.00 pm ambient air volatile organics in different seasons of Kaohsiung city, southern Taiwan. Atmos. Env.,36, 867 – 884.

Demeestere, K., Dewult, J., Witte, B., Van Langenhove, H., 2007. Sample Preparation for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in air and water matrices. J. Chrom., 1153, 130 – 144.

Eljarrat, E., Barcelo, D., 2003. Priority lists for Persistent Organic Pollutants and emerging contaminants based on their relative toxic potency in environmental samples. Trends Anal. Chem. 22, 655-665.

Ergas, S.J., McGrath, M.S., 2007. Membrane Biorector Control of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions. J. Env. Eng., 46 (2), 593 – 598.

Estate Management., 2009. Guidance on Emissions to Atmosphere. University of Cambridge. 800 years 1209 - 2009.

Gariazzo, C., Pelliccioni, A., Fillippo, P., Sallusti, F.C., 2005. Monitoring and analysis of volatile organic compounds around an Oil refinery. Water, Air, soil pollut., 167, 17–18.

Hesterberg, T.W., Lapin, C.A., Bunn, W.B., 2008. A comparison of emissions from vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas. Env. Sci. Techn., 42 (17), 6437 – 6441.

Kerbachi, R., Boughedaoui, M., Bounoue, L., Keddam, M., 2006. Ambient air mpollution by aromatic hydrocarbons in Algiers. Atmos. Environ. 40, 3995 - 4003.

Kim, Y. M., Harrad, S., Harrison, R. M., 2001. Concentrations and sources of VOCs in urban and public microenvironments. Env. Sci. Tech., 35, 997-1004.

Kolabokas, P. D.,Hatzianestis, J., Bartis, J. G., Papagiannakopoulos, P., 2001. Atmospheric Concentration of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons around Greek oil refinery. Atmos. Environ. 35, 2545 - 2555.

Krzyanowski, M., 2005. Health effects of transport related air pollution: Summary for policy makers, United Nations World Health Organization (WHO). See (http: // www . euro. Who .int / document / e86650 sum.pdf ( last visited 10, July, 2006).

Lagos State Government LASG., 2006 Lagos State Regional plan (1980 – 2000). Ministry of Economic planning and Land Matters, Urban Regional plan Division, Ikeja, Lagos.

Liu, C., Xu, Z., Ciuo, H., 2008. Analysis of volatile organic compounds concentration and variation trends in air of Changchum, the northeast of China. Atmos. Env., 34, 4459 - 4566.

National Population Commission NPC, 2009. Misunderstanding, Misperception and Misrepresentation of Census 2006. A rejoinder to the Publication ; The Falsification of Lagos Census Figures by Lagos state.

Maria, R.R., Rosa, M.M., Francesc, B., 2009. Volatile Organic compounds in air at urban and industrial areas in the Tarragona region by thermal desorption and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Env. Monit. Asess.

Marr, L.C., Dzepina, K., Jinenez, J.L., Reison, L.T., Bethel, H.L., Arey, J., Gaftney, J.S., Marley, N.A., Molina, L.T., Malina, M.J. 2005. Source and transformation of particle - bound Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in Mexico City. Atoms. Chem - phys. Discuss., 5,12741 - 12773.

Minnesota Centre for Environmental Advocacy., 2003. Public health effects of traffic - related air pollution :– 9/10/2003. See ID = 24 & profile ID = 295.

Molina, L.T., Kolb, C.E., de Foy, B., Lamb, B.K., Brune, W.H., Jimenez, J.L., Ramos - Villegas, R., Saarmiento , J., Paramo - Figueroa, V.H., Cardenas, B ., Gutierrez - Avedoy, V., Molina, M.J., 2007. Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban and industrial atmospheres: Measurement techniques and data analysis. Int. J. Env. Anal. Chem., 83 ,199 - 217.

Ohura, T., Amagai, T., Fusaya, M., 2006. Regional assessment of ambient Volatile Organic Compounds in an industrial harbour area, Shizuoka, Japan. Atmos. Env., 40, 238 - 248.

Okuo, J.M., Ojiodu, C.C., Olumayede, E.G., 2012. Ambient Air Pollution by Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ikeja Industrial Areas of Lagos - State. Southwestern - Nigeria. Nig. J. Appl. Sci., 30,138 -149.

Ojiodu, C.C., Okuo, J.M., Ladan, M.S., 2012. Baseline Levels of Volatile Organic Compound in Apapa Industrial Areas of Lagos - State, Southwestern - Nigeria. Arch. of Appl. Sci. Res., 4 (6) 2564 – 2570.

Ojiodu, C.C., 2013. Temporal and spatial variation of Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) pollution in Ikeja Industrial Areas of Lagos State, Southwestern - Nigeria. Int. J. Res. Chem. Env., 3,12- 23.

Srivastava, A., Joseph, A.E., Patil, S., More, A., Dixit, R.C., Prakash, M., 2005. Air Toxic in Ambient Air of Delhi. Atmos. Env., 39, 59 - 71.

Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Inc., 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 15, SPSS Inc. Chicago, IIinois.

Tanimoto, H., Aoki, N., Inomata, S., Hirokawa, J., Sadanaga, Y., 2007. Development of a PTR - TOFMS instrument for real - time measurements of volatile organic compounds in air. Int. J. Mass spectrometry., 263, 1- 11.

Ulman, M., Chilmonczy, Z., 2007. Volatile Organic Compounds - Components, Sources, Determination. A

review . chem. Anal., 52, 173 - 200.

Ukpebor, E.E., Sadiku, Y.T., Ahonkahi, S.I., 2005. Indoor NO2 Sampling in a large university campus in Benin City, Southern Nigeria using palmes Diffusion tube, Paks. J. Sci. Ind. Res.. 48 (2), 103 - 107.

Vasu, T., Yoshimichi, H., Shigeki, M., 2009. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petrochemical industrial area of Yokohama., 1-14.



How to Cite

C. Ojiodu, C., G. Olumayede, E. ., & R. Kuteyi, T. . (2013). Presence of volatile organic compound (VOCs) in the atmosphere of Ilupeju industrial area, Lagos state, Southwestern - Nigeria. Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2(11), 369-378. Retrieved from